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BIO205 - CH12 - The Eukaryotes - Fungi, Algae, Proto - Tortora - Rio Salado - AZ

Name the Eukaryote microorganisms that affect humans. Fungi, algae, protozoa, parasitic helminiths, & arthopods
mycorrhizae Symbiotic fungi that help plant roots absorb minerals from water & soil.
mycology Study of fungi
All fungi are __. chemoheterotrophs - require organic compunds for energy and carbon
Fungi are __ or faculative __. aerobic - anaerobic
Multicellular fungi are ID'd on basis of __. physical appearance - including colony characteristics & reproductive spores.
Why are fungal colonies described as vegetative? Because they are composed of cells involved in catabolism and growth.
The __ of a mold or fleshy fungus consists of long filaments of cells joined together. thallus (body)
hyphae Long filaments of cells joined together in molds and fleshy fungus.
Cross-walls in hyphae that divide them into uninucleate (one nucleus) cell-like units. septa
Coenocytic hyphae lack __. cross-walls (septa) and have long, continuous cells with many nuclei.
Hyphae grow by __. elongating at the tips.
Fungi in lab are usually grown from __. fragments obtained from a fungal thallus
Aerial hyphae often bear __. reproductive spores
What type of hypha obtains nutrients? The vegitative hypha
mycelium A mass of long filaments of cell that brach and intertwine in molds - visible to unaided eye.
yeasts Nonfilamentous, intercellular fungi that are typically spherical or oval.
Budding yeast divide __ as parent cell forms bud on outer surface. unevenly
Pseudohypha in yeasts When yeast produce bud that fails to fall away - helps to invade deeper tissues.
How do fission yeasts divide? By dividing evenly to produce 2 new cells.
A budding yeast can produce up to __ daugther cells by budding. 24
Yeast can survive in various environments why? They are capable of faculative anaerobic growth & can use oxygen or not - respirate in oxygen or ferment carbs.
dimorphism Two forms of growth - fungi that can grow either as a mold or yeast.
How does bud differ from a spore? Spores produce vegitative aerial hyphae, while buds reproduce by budding.
In dimorphic fungi, dimorphism is influenced by __ & __. temperature, CO2 concentration.
Most pathogenic species of fungi exhibit __. dimorphism
Fungi are usually ID'd by __. spore type
How do fungal spores differ from bacterial endospores? Bacterial endospores are not reproduction & dosen't increase number of cells, but fungal spores germinate into new mold (reproduction).
Fungi reproduce both __ & __. asexually & sexually
Asexual fungi spores are produced how? Through mitosis & subsequent cell division.
Name the 2 types of fungi asexual spores. Conidiospore (conidium) or sporangiospore.
Of the two fungi asexual spores, which have a sac? Sporangiospore - can contain hundreds of sporangiospores.
Name some reasons why fungi can grow in environments hostile to bacteria. Can handle acidic conditions, low moisture needs, & can metabolize complex carbs.
Zygomycota are __ fungi. conjugation
Ascomyocta are __ fungi. sac - go poof at slightest disturbance.
Basidiomycota are __ fungi. club - mushrooms
zygospore large spore with thick wall
ascocpore Spores in sac-like structures called an ascus
basidiospore club-shaped spore (mushrooms)
Teleomorphs Fungi that produce both sexual & asexual spores.
Anamorphs Asexual fungi that cannot produce sexually - penicillium
Mycosis A fungal infection, chronic
5 types of mycosis Systemic, subcutaneous, cutaneous, superficial, or opportunistic.
Why are fungal infections hard to treat in humans? Because they are also eukaryotic & drugs that hurt them may hurt us too.
Created by: Ladystorm