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Fall 2015 EXAM: AB

Adv. Biology Final EXAM: 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12

Substances going into a chemical reaction... Reactants
Substances produced by a chemical reaction... Products
Eukarotyic cells have a membrane-bound ___ and organelles... Nucleus
Compartmentalize eukaroytic cells... Organelles
Energy organelle NOT found in prokaryotic cells, though they DO contain something that most likely was a predecessor... Mitochondria
May contain pigments, toxins, or sugars that are necessary to store within plant cells... Vacuoles
Allows us to see cells and inner complexity, but not much further than that... Light microscope
Allows us to view things as small as a virus... Electron microscope
The plasma membrane is described as being a ___... Fluid mosaic
Contains pores that allow substances to pass from the nucleus to the cytoplasm... Nuclear envelope
Composed of DNA, protein and some RNA molecules... Chromatin
Formed by the interior membrane of the mitochondria... Cristae
Produce the ribosomal subunits... Nucleolus
Leaves the nucleus to attach itself to a ribosome and begins synthesis of polypeptide chains... mRNA
Composes the ribosomal subunits... rRNA
Carries amino acids to ribosomes for polypeptide synthesis... tRNA
Consists of a stack of slightly curved, flattened saccules resembling pancakes... Golgi apparatus
Sorts proteins and packages them for their final destination... Golgi apparatus
Synthesize and store carbohydrates using solar energy... Chloroplasts
Animal cell organelle which contains it's own ribosomes and DNA... Mitochondria
Overcame the limit of light and allows us to see the surface features and fine details of cells... Electron microscope
Fundamental units of all living things... Cells
Because of the ___, small cells are far more efficient than large cells surface area-to-volume
Increases the surface area available for absorption for such cells as those within your intestines... Microvilli
Regulates movement of materials into and out of the cells... Plasma membrane
Organisms from the domains archaea and bacteria are __ cells... Prokaryotic
Discusses that all organisms are composed of cells and that all cells come from preexisting cells... Cell theory
Produced by the golgi apparatus and contain enzymes that carry out intracellular digestion... Lysosomes
Prokaryotic cells genetic material can be found in an area of the cell known as the ... Nucleoid
Some plants have a secondary cell wall containing ___ and cellulose which gives them added rigidity... Lignin
Small, membrane-lined channels that span the cell wall and contain strands of cytoplasm which allow materials to pass from one cell to another... Plasmodesmata
Contains proteins and polysaccharides produced by the cell that helps support cells and aids in communication between cells... Extracellular matrix
Structure that provides support and shapes the plant cell... Cell wall
Elongated, hollow appendage used to transfer DNA to other cells... Conjugation pilus
Gel-like coating outside the cell wall... Capsule
Synthesizes lipids... Smooth ER
Hair-like bristles that allow adhesion to surfaces... Fimbriae
Location of the bacterial chromosome... Nucleoid
Rotating filament that helps to propel the cell... Flagella
Barrier that surrounds the cytoplasm and regulates entrance and exit of molecules... Plasma membrane
Site of protein synthesis... Ribosome
Serves as a transport station within the cell... Golgi apparatus
Has ribosomes attached to it which allow it to produce polypeptides that are modified and packaged for transport... Rough ER
Site of cellular respiration... Mitochondria
During photosynthesis, ___ is reduced and water is oxidized... Carbon dioxide
Photosystem II and I, ATP production and the electron transport chain are all associated with the... Thylakoid membrane
___ is regenerated by the light reactions (specifically) and the calvin cycle (small amounts) Oxygen
In ___ plants, carbon dioxide fixation occurs by joining CO2 to a three-carbon molecule and pumping it into bundle sheath cells C4
Carbon dioxide fixation occurs when CO2 combines with... RuBP
Enzyme that produces ATP from ADP and phosphate in the thylakoid... ATP synthase
ATP, NADPH and oxygen are all products of the ___... Light reactions
Type of photosynthesis prevalent in plants in dry, arid environments... CAM
Where is the H+ concentration higher, creating a concentration gradient, during photosynthesis? Thylakoid space
Photosynthesis occurs best at wavelengths that are within the ___... Visible spectrum
Energy for the Calvin cycle is supplied by ___ from the light reactions ATP and NADPH
ATP is produced when hydrogen ions move ___ from thylakoid membrane to the stoma... Down a concentration gradient
When electrons in the reaction center of PS I are passed to an energy acceptor molecule, they are replaced by electrons that have been given up by ___ Water
Carbon dioxide and water are the raw materials of ___ Photosynthesis
In the term photosynthesis, "photo" refers to the ___... Light reactions
In the term photosynthesis, "Synthesis" refers to the ___... Calvin cycle
Light reactions take place in the ___... Thylakoid membrane
The Calvin cycle reactions occur in the ___... Stroma
Fluid filled area where carbon dioxide is processed to form carbohydrates such as glucose... Stroma
Solar energy is described in terms of it's ___ and it's energy... Wavelength
Photosynthetic-like process by which some bacteria can produce their own organic nutrients by oxidizing inorganic compounds... Chemosynthesis
Shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum... Violet
Longest wavelength in the visible spectrum... Red
Occurs when a molecule gains hydrogen atoms... Reduction
Occurs when a molecule loses hydrogen atoms... Oxidation
Green plants appear green because they ___ sunlight at that wavelength... Reflect
Series of carriers, in photosynthesis, that pass electrons from one to another, releasing energy stored in the form of H+... Electron transport chain
Most common sugar which is synthesized by plants from G3P... Glucose
First step of the Calvin cycle ___... Carbon dioxide fixation
Product of Calvin cycle which is used to form glucose and a variety of other carbohydrates... G3P
Plants which thrive in environments where temperature and rainfall tend to be moderate... C3
Reside in membranes of thylakoids and all of them are used to absorb solar energy... Pigments
Stored form of energy used by most organisms... Carbohydrates
Turned into chemical energy during photosynthesis... Solar energy
Takes place in the thylakoid membrane... Light reactions
Process which takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast... Calvin cycle
Water for photosynthesis is obtained through the ___ of plants... Roots
CO2 enters from the atmosphere through the... Stomata
Third step of the Calvin cycle... Regeneration of RuBP
ATP and NADH are produced during the... Energy-harvesting steps of glycolysis
During cellular respiration, ___ is oxidized and oxygen is reduced... Glucose
Glycolysis makes a net amount of __ ATP... Two
During the energy-investment step of glycolysis, ___ is consumed... ATP
The formation of ___ is important because pyruvate cannot enter the citric acid cycle... Acetyl-CoA
The citric acid cycle results in the release of ___.... Carbon dioxide
The prep reaction and the citric acid cycle occur in the matrix of the ____.... Mitochondria
The strongest and final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain... Oxygen
The ___ of the electron transport chain undergo both oxidation and reduction as they pass electrons from one to the other... Carriers
___ are one organic molecule that cannot enter the cellular respiration pathways... Nucleic acid
___ during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle accounts for 4 ATP. Substrate-level ATP synthesis
Anaerobic breakdown of glucose... Fermentation
Occurs in the cytoplasm just outside the mitochondria... Glycolysis
Provide the energy needed for your muscles to contract... ATP molecules
Process that requires the participation of the mitochondria and the presence of oxygen... Cellular respiration
During the ___, NADH and FADH2 result and more CO2 is released from the cell... Citric acid cycle
During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into ___... Pyruvate
If oxygen is not available for glycolysis, pyruvate is reduced to ___... Lactate
Nonprotein helpers, like ___, assist in carrying out oxidation during cellular respiration... NAD and FAD
Only the carbon-hydrogen ___ of amino acids can be used by the cellular respiration pathways.... Backbone
The ___ is a series of carriers in the cristae of the mitochondria that release energy as they pass H+ from one to the next Electron transport chain
Area located between the outer and inner membrane of the mitochondria which is used to create a H+ gradient... Intermembrane space
Produces a substrate that can enter the citric acid cycle... Preparatory reaction
The final acceptor for hydrogen atoms during fermentation... Pyruvic acid
The metabolic process that produces the most ATP molecules... Electron transport chain
The greatest contributor of electrons to the electron transport chain... Citric acid cycle
Growing or metabolizing in the absence of oxygen... Anaerobic
In human beings, __ is necessary for growth and repair of tissues and the maintenance of chromosome number in all body cells... Mitosis
Plants cannot use a cleavage furrow to undergo cytokinesis because they have a(n) ... Cell wall
Cytokinesis becomes evident in both ___ and telophase as the cell begins to "furrow" Anaphase
Checkpoint for the completion of DNA synthesis... G2
Nuclear division... Mitosis
Cytoplasmic division.... Cytokinesis
The cell doubles it's organelles and accumulates materials that will be used for DNA replication during the ___ phase of interphase... G1
The spindle begins to assemble during ___.... Prophase
Programmed cell death... Apoptosis
Duplicated chromosomes are composed of identical ___... Chromatids
Sister chromatids separate during... Anaphase
Package which allows DNA to be distributed to the daughter cells... Chromosomes
Cells which result after initial cell has divided... Daughter cells
Constricted region of a chromosome that holds the identical halves together... Centrosome
DNA and associated proteins that have the appearance of thin threads... Chromatin
During G1, ___ occurs as organelles double within the cell Growth
During this subdivision of interphase, DNA replication occurs as chromosomes duplicate S phase
Humans have a total of ___ chromosomes... Forty-six
Most of the cell cycle is spend in ___ Interphase
Protein molecules around which DNA is coiled... Histones
Type of cell division that produces two identical daughter cells as a form of organism reproduction... Binary fission
Spindle fibers attached to chromosomes disassemble and each pole receives a set of daughter chromosomes... Anaphase
During mitosis, the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and are now called... Daughter chromosomes
Chromosomes are condensing and the spindle begins to assemble outside of the nucleus... Prophase
Orderly sequence of stages that takes place between the time a new cell has arisen from the division of the parent cell to the point when it has given rise to two daughter cells... Cell cycle
A human cell contains ___ pair(s) of sex chromosomes... One
When homologous pairs line up together, each homologue faces the ___ spindle pole... Opposite
An individual with triple X syndrome (47, XXX) has __ barr bodies... Two
The separation of sister chromatids of a dyad in anaphase II results in ___ Daughter chromosomes
Serves to reduce the chromosome number and create genetic diversity... Meiosis
Protein complex that holds sister chromatids together in the form of a chromosome... Centrosome
Allows us to visualize all of a person's chromosomes; sometimes enabling diagnosis of certain chromosomal defects... Karyotype
Union of egg and sperm... Fertilization
Cell resulting from fertilization... Zygote
Gap between the first and second meiotic division during which NO DNA replication occurs... Interkinesis
Humans have ___ pair(s) of autosomes... Twenty-two
Sex cells... Gametes
Chromosomes occur in pairs called ___ which carry the same genes in the same locations.... Homologues
Production of sperm... Spermatogenesis
Production of eggs... Oogenesis
Homologous chromosomes of each pair come together and line up side by side in an event called ... Synapsis
Likelihood of nondisjunction occurring increases with a mother's ___ Advanced age
Region on the Y chromosome which codes for most of the "male" characteristics... SRY region
Term, in sexually reproducing organisms, which refers to all the reproductive events that occur from one generation to the next... Life cycle
Mitosis ___ the chromosome number while meiosis ___ the number. Maintains, Decreases
Occurs only between members of a tetrad and involves the swapping of genes... Crossing over
Meiosis is also referred to as ___ Reduction division
Before cell division of any kind to occur, the ___ must first condense into chromosomes... Chromatin
Different versions of a gene... Allele
Have same shape, centromere location and carry the same genes in the same location... Homologous chromosomes
Inactive X Barr body
Homologues of each tetrad separate and dyads move to poles... Anaphase I
Includes only one division and replication of DNA at the end of each cycle... Mitosis
Introduces genetic diversity into the offspring of each generation... Fertilization
Process by which cell membrane pinches off to form two complete cells... Cytokinesis
Result of meiosis I... 2 haploid cells
Result of meiosis II... 4 haploid gametes
Sister chromatids separate, becoming daughter chromosomes that move to the poles... Anaphase II
Trisomy 21... Down syndrome
XO female... Turner syndrome
XXY male... Klinefelter syndrome
Each gamete contains one factor from each pair of factors in the parent, factors segregate during gamete formation and follow fertilization, the new individual carries two factors for each trait Law of segregation
Males produce ___ types of gametes Two different
Cystic firbosis is an autosomal recessive disorder in humans. If two unaffected individuals have a child with CF, what is the chance that their second child will have CF? 25%
Gregor Mendel grew and tended the ___, which he used for his experiments... Garden peas
Used to determine whether a individual with the dominant trait is heterozygous or homozygous... Testcross
Controlled by polygenes and are subject to environmental influences... Multifactorial traits
When on physical trait is affected by two or more pairs of alleles... Polygenic inheritance
Possible types of gametes are lined up across the top and side in order to determine possible genetic outcomes of offspring... Punnett square
Human blood type is an example of both codominance and ___.... Multiple alleles
Refers to the alleles an individual receives as fertilization... Genotype
The outward appearance of a combination of alleles... Phenotype
Each pair of factors segregates independently of the other pairs and all possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes... Law of independent assortment
Genes are arranged linearly on the chromosome as specific gene ___... Loci
Contain information for the production of a specific protein... Genes
Father of Genetics... Gregor Mendel
Heterozygous for two traits... Dihybrid
___ is produced in the anther of the pea plant and contains the sperm... Pollen
The ___ in the ovary of a pea plant contains the eggs... Ovules
Has the ability to mask the expression of the other allele present... Dominant
Often not observed unless in a homozygous pair... Recessive allele
Generation of offspring produced by the initial parental generation... First filial generation
If the varieties were allowed to self-pollinate, the offspring were like the parent plants and like the other True-breeding
When an organism has two identical alleles... Homozygous
When an organism has two different alleles... Heterozygous
Chance of two or more independent events occurring together is the product of their chances of occurring separately... Rule of multiplication
Exhibited when the heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype between that of either homozygote... Incomplete dominance
When more than one dominant is present and when present together both are represented... Codominance
Expected phenotypic result of a two-trait cross between to dihybrids... 9:3:3:1
Mendelian phenotypic ratio of two monohybrid parents... 3:1
Study of genomes Genomics
Each type of cell contains it's own mix of ___ that makes it different from all other cell types. Proteins
All body cell's contain the full set of your genetic cod BUT they differ on what genes are... Expressed
Stem cell's have been used since the 1960's as a treatment for ___ Leukemia
Control of gene expression has been lost in ... Cancer cells
Mutations in the DNA lead to a breakdown of control which may lead to cancer, especially when it affects... Cell cycle
X-inactivation is seen in... Mammalian females
The ___ it a well-known oncogenic virus which is the primary cause of cervical cancer... HPV
Embryonic stem cells are said to be... Totipotent
Adult stem cells are said to be... Multipotent
Portion of DNA wrapped around a group of histone molecules... Nucleosome
Desired end is an individual that is exactly like the original individual... Reproductive cloning
Organisms that contain genes from multiple species, are often confused with cloned organisms but are quite different Transgenic organisms
Characterized by their ability to insert their DNA into human chromosomes Viruses
Darkly stained portions of chromatin that represent tightly, compacted and inactive genetic material Heterochromatin
Purpose is to produce specialized tissue cells Therapeutic cloning
Relationship in which both organisms participating benefit; like E. Coli in the intestines of humans Mutualistic
Occurs because a chemical signal binds to a receptor protein in a target cell's plasma membrane Cell-signaling
Cluster of genes along with the DNA sequences that control their transcription Operon
All of our cells are defined by their __ and function Structure
Codes for a repressor Regulatory gene
Enzyme that joins neucleotides complementary to a DNA template, during transcription, thus making a copy of the instructions written in the DNA RNA Polymerase
Protein that normally binds to the operator, which lies next to the promoter Repressor
Short DNA sequence that RNA polymerase attaches Promoter
Process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product; a protein Gene expression
Created by: SavannahElkins