Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Fall 2016 EXAM: Bio

Biology '16 Final EXAM: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, and 10/11

The white fur of a rabbit in winter is an example of a(n)... Adaptation
Shivering in the cold is an example of a(n)... Response
A testable explanation of a situation... Hypothesis
The body has many mechanisms that it uses to maintain a balanced system, or in other words, maintain ___... Homeostasis
Metric unit for volume... Liter
The frog is 4 cm long... Quantitative data
The frog is yellow with black spots... Qualitative data
Study of living things and the environment... Biology
Characteristic of life that enables the continuation of a species... Reproduction
A measurement system based on the powers of ten which scientists use when conducting research/experimentation... Metric system
A well-tested explanation that brings together many observations in science... Theory
All living things share the ___... Characteristics of life
Direct method of gathering information in an orderly way... Observation
Exposed to the factor being tested... Experimental group
Factor that remains fixed during an experiment while other factors may change... Constant
Information gained from observation... Data
Investigation of a hypothesis in a controlled setting... Experiment
Living and nonliving things that surround an organism and with which it interacts... Factors
Logo designed to alert people about a specific danger... Safety symbols
Occurrence of accidental or unexpected but fortunate results... Serendipity
Process of combining what you know and what you've learned to draw conclusions... Inference
Science applied to matters of legal interest... Forensics
Set of moral principles or values... Ethics
Systematic approach to solving problems... Scientific method
There are ___ characteristics of life... Eight
The place in which an organism lives... Habitat
The presence of interbreeding individuals in one place at a given time... Population
A group of biological communities that interact with the physical environment... Ecosystem
Converting nitrogen from a gas to a useable form, often by bacteria... Nitrogen fixation
The movement of chemicals on a global scale from abiotic through biotic parts of the environment is a(n) ___ process... Biogeochemical
Living factors... Biotic
Nonliving factors... Abiotic
An insect gathers pollen and nectar for food and, at the same time, pollinates the plant... Mutualistic relationship
An organism's role within it's environment... Niche
Heterotroph eating primarily meat... Carnivore
Heterotroph eating a blend of meat/plants... Omnivore
Organism capable of making it's own food... Autotroph
Source of all energy on earth... Sun
Where is the largest concentration of nitrogen found? Atmosphere
Where is the largest concentration of water? Oceans
The study of interactions among organisms... Ecology
Act of one organism consuming another... Predation
Allows a scientist to represent or simulate a process or system... Model
Biological community and all of the abiotic factors that affect it... Ecosystem
Close relationship that exists when two or more species live together... Symbiotic
Group of interacting populations... Biological community
Individual living thing... Organism
Large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities... Biome
Occurs when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time... Competition
Portion of earth that supports life... Biosphere
Part of all organic compounds which make up living things... Carbon
Area of forest that experiences very little change in species composition (very rare)... Climax community
Amount of oxygen in a fish tank is a ___ that affects the number of fish that can survive... Limiting factor
Describes the events that take place on a hillside that has experienced a destructive landslide... Secondary succession
Condition of the atmosphere at a specific place and time... Weather
Estuaries and coral reefs are among the most diverse of all ___... Ecosystems
Species that are the first to inhabit an area after everything, including the soil, has been removed/damaged... Pioneer species
Large geographic areas with similar climax communities... Biomes
Occurs in the US and once contained large herd animals... Grassland
Contains the greatest species diversity of all land biomes... Tropical rainforest
Where is the largest percentage of fresh water located? Glaciers
In which area of the lake is there likely to be the greatest diversity of plankton? Limnetic zone
All organisms living within a type of biome.... Biological community
Grasses with a few trees intermixed... Savanna
Lichen growing on cooled lava beds are an example of... Primary succession
Approximate percentage of earth's freshwater contained in glaciers... Sixty-nine
Floating aquatic plants would be characteristic in the ___ zone of Lake Eerie... Littoral
Zone of the ocean that has proven to be the most difficult for marine biologists to explore... Abyssal zone
Main difference between primary and secondary succession... Presence of soil
Rate of evaporation is higher than precipitation... Desert
Ability of any organism to survive when subjected to abiotic or biotic factors... Tolerance
Distance of any point on the surface of earth N or S of the equator... Latitude
Orderly and predictable change that takes place after a community of organisms has been removed but the soil has remained intact... Secondary succession
Material that is deposited by water, wind or glaciers... Sediment
Biomes are classified primarily according to the characteristics of their... Plants
Deepest area of a large lake... Profundal zone
Average weather conditions in a specific area... Climate
Change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another... Ecological succession
Sunlight is able to penetrate this ocean zone... Photic
The ___ are the upper and lower ends of an organisms range of tolerance for a specific factor... Zones of physiological stress
Temperature and ___ are the two major abiotic factors affecting the distribution of biomes... Precipitation
Grasses and scattered; receive less precipitation than other tropical areas... Tropical savanna
Hot and wet; nutrient poor soils... Tropical rainforest
Resemble temperate deciduous forests because during dry season, trees drop leaves to conserve water... Tropical seasonal forest
Soggy summers, permafrost, cold and dark most of the year... Tundra
Summers are short and moist, winters are long, cold and dry... Boreal forest
Well-defined seasons, summers are hot and winters are cold; populated by broad-leafed deciduous trees... Temperate forest
Basic unit of all living things... Cell
Structure common to all cells; separating interior from exterior components... Plasma membrane
Protein fiber network that supports the cell... Cytoskeleton
Scientist who coined the term "cell"... Hooke
Manufactures the ribosomal subunits... Nucleolus
Process of the plasma membrane pumping excess sodium out of the cell into an environment where there is a lower concentration of sodium... Diffusion
Organelle which produces proteins for the cell... Free ribosomes
Organelle which is often large in plant cells and is used for storage... Vacuole
Acts as a distribution center for cell proteins... Golgi apparatus
Contains the cell's DNA... Nucleus
Breaks down excess microtubules... Lysosomes
Releases energy for the cell... Mitochondria
Process of cell division... Mitosis/meiosis
Produces protein for use outside the cell... Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Framework for the cell... Cytoskeleton
Stores cells materials... Vacuoles
Inflexible barrier that provides support and protects the plant cell... Cell wall
Cells which have a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles... Eukaryotic cells
Are needed to move substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane... Transport proteins
Component of the cell membrane that allows for fluidity and flexibility... Cholesterol
Key property of the plasma membrane... Selective permeability
Modern concept/model of the plasma membrane... Fluid mosaic
One of the fundamental ideas of modern biology... Cell theory
Have no membrane bound nucleus or organelles... Prokaryotic cells
Two layers of lipids arranged tail to tail... Phospholipid bilayer
Moves small molecules across the plasma membrane using transport proteins... Facilitated diffusion
Involves water moving across the plasma membrane to the side with the greater solute concentration... Osmosis
Occurs when substances move against the gradient; requiring energy... Active transport
Occurs when plasma membrane surrounds a large substance inside the cell and moves it outside the cell... Exocytosis
Condition that results when diffusion continues until the concentrations are the same in all areas... Dynamic equilibrium
Occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large substance outside the cell and moves it inside the cell... Endocytosis
Cannot be created nor destroyed, but rather exists and can change into a variety of forms... Energy
Ability to do work... Energy
Main source of chemical energy for all living things... ATP
Breaking down of pyruvate occurs in the ___... Citric acid cycle
Internal membrane of the chloroplast that is organized into flattened membranous sacs... Thylakoids
Where in the cell does the Citric acid cycle occur? Mitochondria
Formed during the light-independent phase of photosynthesis... Glucose molecules
Anaerobic process that restores NAD supply... Fermentation
Anabolic pathway in which light energy is converted into chemical energy... Photosynthesis
Mechanism by which ATP is produced as a result of the flow of electrons down a concentration gradient... Chemiosmosis
Study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe... Thermodynamics
Where in the cell does photosynthesis takes place... Chloroplast
Catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell... Cellular respiration
Each step or level within a food web or chain... Trophic level
All food webs or chains begin with... Autotrophs
Final step of aerobic respiration when ATP is created... Electron transport chain
Energy is conserved... First law of thermodynamics
Sum of all chemical processes taking place in the body at one time... Metabolism
Autotrophs that convert light energy into chemical energy... Photoautotrophs
In ___, pyruvate is converted to lactate. Lactic acid fermentation
What anaerobic process occurs after glycolysis... Krebs cycle
Chemical bond within ATP which stores the most energy... Phosphate bond
___ are found in plants and used to absorb solar energy... Pigments
Anabolic pathways are... Synthesis reactions
Catabolic pathways are... Decomposition reactions
Energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy... 2nd law of thermodynamics
A cells grow, their ratio of surface area to volume ___ Increases
Signal for the cell to divide... Cyclins
Describes the activities of a cell that include cellular growth and cell division.. Cell cycle
Contain multiple genetic changes... Cancer cells
As the cell's volume increases, the proportional amount of surface area... Increases
Starting with one cell that underwent six divisions, how many cells would result? Sixty four
Programmed cell death... Apoptosis
Unspecialized human cells... Stem cells
Main stage in which the cell grows, carries out normal functions and duplicates its DNA Interphase
Stage in which cells nuclear material divides and separates... Mitosis
Division of the cytoplasm... Cytokinesis
Substage in which the cell prepares for nuclear division and a protein that makes microtubules for cell division is synthesized... G2
Stage in which the cell divides into two daughter cells with identical nuclei... Cytokinesis
Substage of interphase immediately after a cell divides... G1
Substage of interphase in which cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division... S phase
Proteins which bind to enzymes to start various activities in the cell cycle... Cyclins
Different ___ combinations control different activities at different stages in the cell cycle... Cyclin/CDK
Uncontrolled growth and division of cells... Cancer
Substances and agents that are known to cause cancer... Carcinogens
Governmental agency which is in charge of ensuring the public that what they consume is safe... FDA
Mechanism involving proteins and ___ control the cell cycle... Enzymes
Stem cells which have not become specialized and can develop into a variety of different cells... Embryonic
Stem cells which are found in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissue in which they are found... Adult stem cells
Chromosomes attach to spindle apparatus and align along cells equator... Metaphase
Chromosomes begin moving to opposite poles... Anaphase
Chromosomes condense... Prophase
Chromosomes reach poles of cell... Telophase
Means "without a nucleus" Prokaryote
Bacterial enzymes convert nitrogen gas into compounds Nitrogen fixation
Substances can leave the cell via a vesicle joining with the plasma membrane Exocytosis
___ have the exact same centromere position, gene location and size/shape. Homologous chromosomes
An exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment Gene linkage
The sex chromosomes determine ___ in humans. Gender
Human blood types are examples of both ___ and multiple alleles. Codominance
Sister chromatids do not separate, resulting in ___ Nondisjunction
Found on the ends of chromosomes and protect the structure during replication and separation Telomeres
Total number of chromosomes in the human body Forty-six
Alternative form of a gene Allele
Extra set(s) of chromosomes Polyploidy
What is the phenotypic ratio in a cross of two hybrids? 3:1
What is the genotypic ratio in a cross of two hybrids? 1:2:1
Has two of the same alleles for a trait Homozygous
Syndrome which results from an extra chromosome 21 Down syndrome
White flowered plants cross with red flower plants to produce pink flowered plants is an example of... Incomplete dominance
The coat coloring in labordors is an example of... Epistasis
Coat pattern/coloring in rabbits is controlled by... Multiple alleles
"n" Haploid
"2n" Diploid
Process which forms gametes Meosis
Father of genetics Gregor Mendel
Allele which can mask the effects of another Dominant
Allele which typically is only expressed when there is no dominant present Recessive
Can help to predict the offspring of a cross, developed by a geneticist, Sir. R. P Punnett Square
Involves both crossing over and indep. assortment Genetic recombination
Heterozygous for a recessive trait Carrier
Diagram which illustrates the inheritance pattern between parents and offspring Pedigree
Genes found on the X and Y are associated with... Sex-linked traits
Micrographc of stained chromosomes Karyotype
Both our genes and the ___ influence and organism's phenotype. Environment
Characteristics that have more than one pair of possible genotypes. Polygenic traits
Absence of a gene that codes for enzyme to break down dairy compounds Galactosemia
Affects red blood cells and their ability to transport oxygen Sickle Cell Disease
Buildup of fatty acids in the brain; mental disabilities Tay-Sachs Disease
Decline of mental and neurological functions; ability to move deteriorates Huntington's Disease
Excessively thick mucous production; digestive and respiratory failure Cystic Fibrosis
Inability of blood to clot properly, if at all Hemophilia
No color in skin, eyes and hair Albinism
Short arms and legs; large head; disproportion Achondroplasia
Distinctive facial features, short stature and often accompanied by varying levels of mental disabilities Down syndrome
Human male with XXY; hormonal imbalances and often developmental disabilities. Klinefelter's Syndrome
Created by: SavannahElkins