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BIO205 - CH11 - Prokaryotes - Bacteria & Archaea - Tortora - Rio Salado - AZ

Proteobacteria include? Most of the gram-negative, chemoheterotrophic bacteria - largest taxonomic group.
Phylogenic relationships based upon __. rRNA studies
prosthecae Unusual morphology - protrusions such as salks & buds.
Alphaprotobacteria include __. agriculturally important bacteria capable of nitrogen-fixation in symbiosis with plants.
The prefix __ is found in nitro-fixing genera of bacteria. azo - a=without & zo=life - nitrogen came to be associated with absense of life.
Protobacteria are gram-__. negative
The phylum for a Pseudomonadales is a __. proteobacteria (gamma)
Enterobacteriales (order) are __ protobacteria. gamma
Escherichia & Salmonella (genera) bacteria are gamma__. protobacteria - coli is one too.
Myxococcus (order) bacteria are __. deltaproteobacteria
Name 3 gram-negative bacteria that are not proteobacteria. Cyanobacteria (photoautotrophs), chlamydia (chemoheterotropic) & spirochetes (chemoheterotrophic).
What is the purpose of a stalk in certain bacteria? Anchor organs & increase nutrient uptake - stalk increases surface-to-volume ratio of cell.
How do budding bacteria divide? Not by binary fission - they resemble asexual reproduction - bud increases in size till it separates into a complete cell.
Agrobacterium do what? Invade plants - form tumor like crown gall when it inserts a plasmid with DNA into plant DNA - scientists interested for genetic engineering.
75% of animal species carry which endosymbiont? Wolbachia - hide as endosymbionts in cell of insect - bacteria is killed, host dies - can turn male into female in some insects.
Parthenogenesis In some insects, amphibians & reptiles - a method of reproduction caused by the wolbachia bacteria inside the organisms.
How does a sheath help a bacteria? Protective & aid in nutrient accumulation
Bordetella, Neisseria (gonorrhoea), & Burkholderia are __protobacteria. beta
For what are fimbriae used? Enables organisms like Neisseria gonorrhoeae to attach to mucous membrane - contributes to pathogenicity.
Neisseria gonorrheae gonorrhea - gram-negative, bean-shaped cocus - diplococci due to fimbriae - faculative anaerobe - oxidase & catalase positive - ferments glucose.
Neisseria meningitidis meningitis - gram-negative, bean-shaped coccus - diplococci, faculative anaerobe, oxidase & catalase positive - lactose negative.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bad for burn units & UTI - gram-negative, beta-hemolytic, aerobic, oxidase & catalase positive - non-lactose-fermenting
Can cause UTI, sepsis, & meningitis Pseudomonas - gram-negitive rods, gammaproteobacteria - glow in flourescent light.
Why are pseudomonas a problem in hospital? Their nutritional diversity - grow on soaps, antiseptics (quats), antibiotic resistance due to porins - responsible for 1 in 10 nosocomical infections.
Causes conjunctivitis Moraxella - gammaproteobacteria.
Escherichia coli Gram-negative, beta-hemolysis, green-black with metallic sheen on EMB, lactose +, catalase +, oxidase - diarrhea & UTI.
Vibronales (order) Vibrio cholerae - cholera - diarrhea - undercooked shellfish - gammaproteobacteria.
Salmonella (genus) Almost all are pathogenic - 2400 serovars (species varieties) flagella are antigens - S. typhi (typhoid) & salmonellosis (foodborn disease) - gammaproteobacteria.
Salmonella typhi "Typhi" is actually serotype - gram-negative rod, fac. anaerobe, lactose - , glucose +, oxidase -, Food poisioning & typhoid.
Serovars (serotype) Subdivisions of species - i.e. Salmonella typhi is actually "Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium".
bivars (biotypes) Further subdivisions of serovars - special biochemical or physiological properties.
Proteus - Phylum, Class & Order Proteobacteria, gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriales.
Enterobacter are gammaproteobacteria that use __. UTI & hospital-acquired infections.
X factor Substances from the heme fraction of blood hemoglobin - Haemophilus species
V factor NAD+ OR NADP+ - needed to culture Heamophilus.
Why are deltaproteobacteria distinctive? Include predators on other bacteria & sulfer cycle.
Why do Bdellovibrio bacteria attack other bacteria? To reproduce when the host cell lyses (deltaproteobacteria).
Myxococcus Preys on other bacteria - deltaproteobacteria - gram-negative, fruiting body & spores.
Vibroid Helical bacteria - motile by flagella - microaerophics.
What epsilonproteobacteria is known to cause stomach cancer and ulcers? Helicobacterer pylori
What do gram-negative - nonproteobacteria have in common? They are photosynthesizing bacteria (cyanobacteria, etc.)
heterocysis Special cells in cyanobacteria that contain enzymes that fix nitrogen gas.
Which bacteria do scientists believe played an important part in development of life on earth? Cyanobacteria - oxygenic photosynthetic - believed to have made oxygen possible.
How does photosynthesis of cyanobacteria differ from purple sulfur bacteria? Photosynthetic bacteria like cyanobacteria produce oxygen, whle purple sulfer is anoxygenic in that it doesn't produce oxygen, but sulfer.
2 groups of gram-positive bacteria High G+C ratios (Actinobacteria) & low G+C ratios (Firmicutes)
Firmicutes (phylum) Low G+C gram-positive bacteria - Clostridium, bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, lactobacillus, & mycoplasma.
Clostridium perfringens From lab - low G+C (Firmicutes), gram +, rod, double zone of beta-hemolysis, anaerobic, catalse -, Causes gangrene.
Genus Clostridium Rod-shaped, obligate anaerobes, contain endospores, C. tetani, C. botulinum, C. perfringes, C. difficile.
Haemophilus influenzae Gram-neg. rod, catalase +, causes meningitis
What causes Clostridium to be problem in contamination of deep wound? They are anaerobes.
What structure is made by both Clostridium and Bacillus? endospores
Which bacteria has 25x as much DNA as human cell? Epulopicium fishelsoni - lives inside Red Sea Surgeonfish - Low G+C gram-pos. bacteria (Firmicutes).
Bacillus anthracis Lab - anthrax - gram +, rod, low G+C (firmicutes), non-hemolytic, catalase +, faculative anaerobe, forms chains.
Bacillales Firmicutes (Low G+C) gram +, endospores, rods, common in soil - some rpoduce antibiotics.
Staphylococcus Grape clusters, cocci, low G+C (firmicutes), gram +, faculative anaerobes, yellow.
Staphylococcus aureus Lab - gram +, grape clusters, yellow, low G+C (firmicutes), beta-hemolysis, catalase +, oxidase +, ferments mannitol - enterotoxin causes vomiting - can be antibiotic resistant - abscesses.
Toxins in S. aureus help it to do what? Invade the body or damage tissue.
Enterotoxin From S. aureus - cuases vomiting & nausea - most common cause of food poisoning.
Staphylococcus epidermidis Gram +, grape clusters, low G+C (firmicutes), fac. anaerobe, catalase +, no hemolysis, no change in agar color, VP+ - normally lives on skin & mucous membrane - when immune system weak.
Lactobacillales Low G+C (firmicutes), gram +, lactic acid +, aerotolerant.
Lactobacillus used to make? Pickles, yogurt, buttermilk - lactic acid fermenters - gram +, firmicutes.
Streptococcus Gram +, firmicutes (low G+C), chains of cocci, destroy phagocytic cells that ingest them, digest CT of host - lyse fibrin - some are beta-hymolytic & some aren't.
Name some of the beta-hemolytic Streptococci S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae.
Name some non-hemolytic Streptococci. S. pneumoniae, S. mutans.
Alpha-hemolytic appears? Colonies surrounded by greening which is partial distruction of RBCs.
Streptococcus pyogenes Lab - gram +, cocci, chains, non-pigmented, beta-hemolysis, catalase -, causes strep throat, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever - M protein allows them to avoid phagocytosis.
Streptococcus pneumoniae Lab - gram +, cocci, in pairs, alpha-hemolytic, catalase -, encapsulated, pneumococcal pneumonia, & meningitis
Enterococcus faecalis Lab - gram +, cocci, chains/pairs/clusters, beta-hemolysis, catalase -, oxidase -, normal in intestines - can cause UTI - nosocomial infections - in wounds & cathaders.
What enzyme lyses RBCs in beta-hemolytic species? hemolysin
Causes dental caries Streptococcus mutans
Enterococcus found where? Low oxygen places in body - GI tract, vagina, oral cavity, & stools.
Enterococcus Gram +, low G+C (firmicutes), found in hospitals (nosocomial) - highly resistant to antibiotics - surgical wound infections.
Mycoplasmatales lack a __. cell wall
Why don't filters work well on mycoplasmatales? Tiny size & plasticity due to no cell wall - may be smallest self-replicating organism.
Loosing genetic material is called __. degenerative evolution
Irregular morphology pleomorphic
What are Actinobacteria? High G+C, gram + bacteria like mycobacterium, corynebacterium & Nocardia - (actino=ray) - radiate, or starlike, form of growth - branching filaments.
Actinomycetes are Actinobacteria (high G+C) that resemble __ & reproduce how? molds - by asexual spores
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis & leprosy - Aerobic, non-endospore-forming rods, acid-fast, drug resistant, pathogenic due to cell wall (mycolic acids) - waxy & water resistant.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae Lab - High G+C (Actinobacteria), straight, gram +, rod, like stacks of coins - diptheriae
Which Actinobacteria genus produces most of our commercial antibiotics? Streptomyces - gram +, high G+C bacteria (Actinobacteria).
Filament forming is advantageous in what environment? Soil
Nocardia Actinobacteria (high G+C), gram +, aerobic, acid-fast, soil
Why are Actinomyces not classified as fungi? They are prokaryotic.
Chlamydiae lack __ in their cell walls. peptidoglycan
Besides lacking peptidoglycan in cell walls, what makes chlamydiae unique? Their debelopmental cycle - elementary bodies, reticulate bodies, & intermediate bodies.
Elementary bodies of chlamydiae infectious stage (small)
Reticulate bodies of chlamydiae Reproduction in host cell
Intermediate bodies of chlamydiae Stage from reticulate to elementary
Spirochetes move by? Axial filaments (endoflagella) near pole of cell.
Name some diseases caused by spirochetes. Gram + - syphilis & Lyme disease
Bacteroidetes Gram +, high G+C (actinobacteria), anaerobic, intestinal tract & mouth - puncture wounds & peritonitis due to perforated bowel.
Fusobacteria Gram +, high G+C (actinobacteria), anaerobic, pleomorphic, spindle-shaped - dental abcesses.
The Domain Archaea lack __. peptidoglycan in cell walls
Gram of Archaea Both + & - organisms.
Created by: Ladystorm
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