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Molecular Bio

macromolecule a large, complex molecule
polymer a molecule made of many monomers
monomer a small repeating unit
organic molecule a molecule containing many carbon atoms and usually found in or produced by living organisms
carbohydrate a macromolecule that's main function is to provide energy
monosaccharide the building block or monomer for carbohydrates. A simple sugar.
polysaccharide made of many monosaccharides. Also known as a carbohydrate
glucose the most common carbohydrate monomer
glycogen how animals store excess sugar
starch how plants store excess sugar
cellulose found in the cell walls of plants and provides structure
simple sugar also known as monosaccharide. The most common is glucose.
protein a macromolecule that has many functions including structure and transport. The most important examples are insulin, hemoglobin, and enzymes.
amino acid the building block or monomer for proteins. There are twenty of them and they are identified by their varying R-group
lipid a macromolecule that's main function is long-term energy storage. They are an important part of the cell membrane, provide waterproof surfaces, and act as chemical signals.
fatty acid and glycerol the monomers for lipids
nucleic acid A macromolecule that's main function is to carry genetic information. The two main examples are DNA and RNA.
Nucleotide The monomer for nucleic acids. Includes a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
Enzyme A type of catalyst that speeds up a reaction by lowering the activation energy.
Activation Energy The energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
Substrate the molecule an enzyme acts on
enzyme specificity characteristic of an enzyme where substrates will react only if it fits the active site of the enzyme
Lock and Key Model This model represents how the enzyme works and emphasizes enzyme specificity
Cellular Respiration the reaction where the energy in glucose is converted into ATP
aerobic respiration cellular respiration where glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen; results in 36 ATP's
anaerobic respiration cellular respiration where glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygen; results in 2 ATP's
lactic acid fermentation anaerobic cellular respiration where glucose is converted into lactic acid; it yields 2 ATP's
alcoholic fermentation anaerobic cellular respiration where glucose is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide; it yields 2 ATP's
photosynthesis the process of converting water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen
denaturation the process in which an enzyme has lost its shape due to extreme pH or temperature and can no longer function
Created by: jessicagiorgione
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