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ME Emergency Proc.

QuestionAnswer
what is the normal adult body temperature? 98.6 F, 37 C
what is a high body temperature for an adult? over 99.5 F
what is a low body temperature for an adult? below 96 F
define febrile with fever
define afebrile without fever
define pyrexia fever, over 99.5 F
define hyperthermia over 105.8 F
define hypothermia below 96 F
what is the proper technique for taking a pulse? taken same time as temp, patient arm supported with palm down, locate radial pulse with three fingers (no thumb), slight pressure, count for one minute. while taking pulse observe rhythm, volume, and strength
what is the normal pulse rate for an adult? 60 - 100 beats per minute
define tachycardia increased pulse, over 100 beats a minute
define bradychardia decreased pulse, under 50 beats a minute
what is the normal respiration rate for an adult? 14-20 breaths a minute
what is the proper technique for taking a respiration rate? immediately after taking pulse without moving hand, count so patient is not aware, count either the inhales or exhales for one minute. observe depth, rhythm, quality, sounds, position of patient.
define diastolic blood pressure the lowest pressure. is the blood pressure between beats whent the heart is relaxed.
define systolic blood pressure the highest pressure. is the blood pressure at the moment your heart beats.
which blood pressure is a more potent cardiovascular risk in someone over 50 years old systolic
define pulse pressure the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure, normal is less than 40 mm Hg
what are the negative effects of hypertension? heart diseases such as heart attack or heart failure. cerebral vascular accident (stroke). renal disease.
what is the pharmacologic treatment for hypertension? antihypertensive drugs
what is the non-pharmacologic treatment for hypertension? lifestyle modifications including reduce weight, adopt DASH eating plan, reduce sodium to no more that 2.4g a day, adopt regular physical activity, restrict alcohol comsumption, quit smoking
what is the proper procedure for controlling prolonged bleeding? compression over area, apply gauze with pressure, bandage into place, elevate above heart. for severe bleeding apply pressure to pressure point. if shock occurs call EMS
what is the proper procedure for controlling bleeding from a tooth socket? pack with folded gauze, have patient bite down on it, or a wet tea bag for 10 minutes, don't rinse.
what is the proper procedure for controlling bleeding from an extremity? Activate EMS, elevate part (support with pillows ect), apply tourniqute only if limb is amputated-mangled-crushed. if applied, don't remove.
what is the proper procedure for controlling a nosebleed? seat upright, tell patient to breathe through mouth, apply cold to nose, press bleeding nostril for a few minutes. tell not to blow nose for hour or more. if doesnt stop pack nostril with wet cotton roll lubricated with water soluble lubricant.
what is the proper procedure for controlling a hematoma? apply pressure to mucobuccal fold for at least 2 minutes, apply ice extraorally, soreness-take analgesic. apply heat after 24 hours-warm moist towel 20 minutes every hour. hematoma present for 7-14 days
what are the specific causes of shock? sharp pain, sight or insertion of needle, sight of blood, uncomfortable enviornment, severe infection, anxiety, hemorrhage, vomiting of diarrhea, inadequate fluid intake
what are the specific causes of stroke? cerebral thrombosis (blood clot), intracerebral embolism, ischemia, cerebral hemorrhage
what is anaphylactic shock? an allergic reaction of the body to an overwhelming sensation by a foreign protein
what is congenital heart disease? an abnormality in the anatomic structure of the heart or major blood vessels due to faulty or arrested development during the first 9 weeks in utero
what is rheumatic heart disease? a complication of rheumatic fever which frequently results in heart valve damage
what is mitral valve prolapse? the mitral valve between the left atrium and ventricle doesn't close completely. sometimes regurgitation of blood and back flow into left atrium.
what is infective endocarditis? microbial infection of the heart valves or endocardium that occurs in proximity to congenital or acquired defects
what is hypertensive heart disease? a result of increased load on the the heart cause of elevatd artenal blood pressure (high BP)
what is ischemic heart disease? insufficient blood supply to the myocardium (heart muscle)
what is atheromas? arterial plaque
what is arteriosclerosis? thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of the artery walls which diminishes their capacity to supply blood
what is aterosclerosis? thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of the artery walls which diminishes their capacity to supply blood
what is monckeberg's arteriosclerosis? extensive calcium deposits found in media of arterial wall with little obstruction of the lumen. (not reversible)
what are the symptoms of angina pectoris? sudden transient pain in the substernal area which may radiate to shoulder, neck, arms, or mandible. pain-squeezing or crushing in chest lasting 1-5 minutes.
what is the treatment procedure for angina pectoris? place nitroglycerin tablet sublingually or nitrolingual spray on tongue. if no relief from 2nd pill or spray (within 3 minutes) treat as myocardial infarction
what are the symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction? sudden pain which may radiate, long duration.
what is the treatment procedure for an acute myocardial infarction? activate EMS if symptoms of angina persist after 3 min or 2 tablets/sprays.
what are the symptoms of congestive heart failure? left side - cough and expectoration right side - swelling feet/ankles, prominent juglar veins, congestion with edema in various organs
what is the treatment procedure for congestive heart failure? cover with blanket, give oxygen, record/monitor vitals
what are the symptoms of cardiac arrest? no pulse, heart beat, or breathing
what is the treatment procedure for cardiac arrest? CPR
what effect does nitroglycerin have on the body? decreases blood pressure (vasodialator)
what effect does adrenalin (epinephrine) have on the body? increased blood pressre and heart rate (vasoconstrictor & cardiovascular stimulant)
what effect does ammonia have on the body? increased respiration
what are the predisposing factors of an insulin reaction? too much insulin (hyperinsulinism), too little food - delayed or omitted, loss of food by vomiting or diarrhea, excessive exercise, stress
what are the symptoms of an insulin reaction? sudden onset. possible drooling, trembling, normal to shallow respirations
what is the treatment procedure for an insulin reaction if conscious? conscious - feed sugar cubes, apple juice, candy, cake icing, or glucose. follow with protein.
what is the treatment procedure for an insulin reaction if unconscious? unconscious- supine, administer oxygen w/ non-rebreathing mask, place cake icing in vestibule or give sugar water via rectum. administer intramuscular glugacon or IV glucose
what are the predisposing factors of a diabetic coma? too little insulin, too much food, less exercise than planned, infection/illness, trauma, drugs, alcohol abuse, stress
what are the symptoms of a diabetic coma? slow onset. skin flushed and dry, dry mouth, thirst (polydipsia), breath w/fruity odor (ketosis), drowsiness, weakness, lethargy, kussmaul breathing
what is the treatment for a diabetic coma? keep patient warm, oxygen with nasal cannula, give fluid to conscious patient, insulin injection by physician
what is dyspnea? shortness of breath on lying supine, relieved when sitting up
what is nocturia? excessive urination particularly at night
what is glycosuria? glucose spills over into urine
what is polyuria? excretion of large amounts of urine
what is polydipsia? dry mouth
what is polyphagia? increased food intake, but weight loss may occur
what is dysphasia? difficulty swallowing
what is hemiplegia? paralysis of one side of the body
what is the amount of oxygen given to a patient with varying degrees of difficulty breathing? 2-15 l/min
a coronary thrombus (blood clot formed in heart) or coronary embolism causes... a coronary occlusion (coronary thrombosis) which can cause a myocardial infarction
what are the symptoms of a simple partial seizure? cessation of ongoing activity, breif staring spell, jerking of muscles around mouth, NO loss of consciousness
what are the symptoms of a complex partial seizure? trance like state w/ confusion (few min to hours), consciousness impaired, may have purposeless movements or actions followed by confusion, incoherent speech, ill humor, temper, frequently doesn't remember
what is the treatment procedure for a partial seizure? assist patient to avoid injury to themselves
what are the symptoms of a generalized seizure? loss of consciousness (5 - 30 seconds), fixed posture, twitching of eyelids/brows/head/chewing movements, attack ends abruptly, patient unaware of what occurred
what is the treatment procedure for a generalized seizure? take objects from patient to prevent them dropping it
what are the symptoms of a generalized tonic-clonic seizure? breathing shallow or stops briefly, tonic phase-tension w/ rigidity, clonic-movements w/ muscular contraction & relaxation. epileptic cry. loss of consciousness. may bit tongue, loss of bladder. saliva foamy. 1-3 min. patient needs to sleep after.
what is the treatment procedure for a generalized tonic-clonic seizure? place in supine, open airway/apply suction, oxygen with nasal cannula, prevent patient injury, place pillow under head, allow patient to sleep after, don't dismiss if alone
what are the symptoms of first degree burns? skin reddened, swelling, pain
what are the symptoms of second degree burns? skin reddened, blisters, swelling, wet surface, pain
what is the treatment for first and second degree burns over large area of body? activate EMS, no food or liquids, alert for shock, cover with cool water, clean with antiseptic, NO ointment-grease-baking soda. dress lightly with sterile bandage. elevate.
what is the treatment for first and second degree burns over small area of body? cover with cool water
what are the symptoms of third degree burns? severe damage, skin burned off, leathery look, insensitive to touch
what is the treatment for third degree burns? activate EMS, DONT REMOVE CLOTHES, treat for shock, basic life support-maintain open airway, cover loosely w/ dressing, elevate, no sedative-food-liquids
what is the treatment for acid burns of oral mucous membrane? flush with water for 30 seconds, rinse with solution of bicarbonate of soda, advise bland diet, medical assistance advised or obtained
what is the treatment for alkali burns of oral mucous membrane? flush with water for 30 seconds, rinse with one teaspoonful vinegar in glass of water, advise bland diet, medical assistance advised or obtained
what are the symptoms of internal poisoning? signs of corrosive burn -oral cavity, evidence empty container or info from patient, nausea, vomiting, cramps
what is the treatment for internal poisoning? activate EMS, call poison control, artificial ventilation (inhaled poison), NO FOOD WATER IPECAC, don't induce vomiting
what are the symptoms of a foreign body in the eye tears, blinking
what is the treatment for a foreign body in the eye? patient look down, upper eyelid down over lower for a second then move upward. remove with moist cotton tip, use eye wash station. prevent from rubbing with gauze taped over eye
what are the symptoms of a dislocated jaw? mouth open, unable to close
what is the treatment for a dislocated jaw? relax muscles with hot compress or chloromethan spray. press down and back on jaw. bandage around head to support
what are the symptoms of a facial fracture? eccymosis (diffusion of blood into tissue spaces), deformity, limited movement, crepitus. zygoma-depression. mandibular-abnormal occlusion
what is the treatment for a facial fracture? EMS, patient on side, support with bandage
what are the symptoms of respiratory failure? labored or weak or no breathing.
what is the treatment for respiratory failure? perform rescue breathing adult - 2 breaths 1 second each, then 1 breath every 5 seconds child (-8) and infant-2 bre 1 sec, then 1 every 3 sec child-shallow depending on size of kid
what are the symptoms of choking? inneffective/no cough, gasping, unable to speak, possible cessation of breathing/loss of consciousness
what is the treatment for choking? heimlich manuver unconscious -EMS, remove object if visible, if not do 30 chest compressions, look for object, 2 breaths, repeat. if object dislodged do respiration if needed, check carotid pulse
what are the symptoms of an asthma attack? difficulty breathing, wheezing, confusion, chest pressure
what is the treatment for an asthma attack? EMS, patient upright, give bronchodialator, oxygen with cannula, epinephrine if patient decompensates, supplemental cortisone if applicable
what are the symptoms of shock? moist skin (cold/clammy), rapid shallow breathing, low BP, thirst if shock is from bleeding, eventual unconsciousness
what is the treatment for shock? trendelburg, open airway, keep quiet and warm, no fluids
what are the symptoms of anaphylactic shock? swelling of lips, membranes, eyelids. swelling vocal cords. urticaria.
what is the treatment for anaphylactic shock? supine, oxygen, epi-pen, cpr if needed
what are the symptoms of a stroke? speech defects, hemiplegia (paralysis one side body), hemiparesis (slight or complete paralysis one side of body)
what is the treatment for a stroke? turn on paralyzed side, elevate head slightly.
what is the symptoms of syncope? sudden loss of consciousness
what is the treatment for syncope? keep in supine for 10 minutes after recovery. 24 hour recovery time, no dental treatment.
Created by: mnerion