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Oral Surgery/ Endo

QuestionAnswer
How long do oral surgeons have to go to school for additionally? 4-6 years
Periosteal Elevator reflects and retracts the periosteum from the surface of the bone
What is the periosteum? fibrous covering of bone
Extraction Elevator applies leverage (luxate) against a tooth to loosen it from the periodontal ligaments
Root tip picks To remove the root tips that break off during extractions
Extraction Forceps to grasp and remove teeth from the alveolus after they have been loosened
Extraction forceps are divided into two group 1.specific groups of teeth on one side of the mouth 2.Universal-used on both sides in the same arch
Surgical Curette Used to scrape out sockets to remove diseased tissue
Rongeur Trims alveolar bone
Bone File Smooths the surface of bone
Scalpel Used to make precise incisions into the soft tissue
Hemostat Used to grasp soft tissue, bone, and tooth fragments after they have been removed
Needle Holder used to grasp a suture needle firmly
Surgical Scissors To trim soft tissue
Suture Scissors to cut only suture material
Retractors To handle soft tissue as carefully as possible to prevent trauma
Mouth Props Allows patient to rest and relax their jaw muscles
Chisel and Mallet to remove bone to be able to remove a tooth and to reshape the bone
Surgical burs Used to divide a tooth or remove bone
What is a routine extarction? Can be completed without extensive instrumentation, mostly dont need sutures
What is a multiple extraction? Its indicated when a patient is receiving a denture, partial, or implants
Whats alveoloplasty? its preformed after exractions to smooth and contour the bone in the affected area
Whats a complex extraction? They require additional skill, knowledge, and instrumentation to remove a tooth
Whats malignancies mean? cancerous
Whats prognosis mean? a forecast of the probable outcome of a disorder
What is a incisional Biopsy entail? performed when the lesion is in area that would be cosmetically or functionally impairing. larger then a cm and they only take out a small wedge, until the lesion is diagnosed
What is a excisional biopsy? the complete removal of the lesion and some of the normal tissue too. No esthetic problems to worry about
What is a exfoliative biopsy? a nonsurgical tech. that brushes and gathers surfaces cells from a lesion. minimally invasive
How are absorbable sutures absorbed? By the bodies enzymes
how long do non-absorbable sutures stay in? 5 days till they are removed
Whats the most common postsurgical complication? prolonged bleeding
What do you do for prolonged bleeding? pack moist gauze over site for 20-30min or a moistened tea bag [bc it has TANNIC ACID TO HELP CLOTTING] after 45min call the dentist and get it irrigated and packed again
What is alveolitis? a dry socket that occurs when a clot fails to form or is dislodged. extremely painful and happens about 2-4days after surgery
What causes alveolitis? inadequate blood supple, trauma, infection, dislogement of clot, not caring for extraction site propertly, smoking, sneezing, coughing, spitting, using a straw, birth control
How do you treat alveolitis? Palliative therapy
What is palliative therapy? making a patient comfortable while the wound heals.
How many years extra does a endodontist have to complete? 3 years
How does extensive decay cause pulpal damage? the toxins that bacteria produces in decay, break down the dentin
How does trauma cause pulp damage? it could disrupt blood supply
How does chemical irritation cause pulp damage? incomplete removal of acid etch
how does thermal irritation cause pulp damage? a metal restoration is too close to the pulp or the use of a high speed rotary instrument
What is galvanic shock and how does it cause pulp damage? the flow of electrical current between two different metals through an electrolyte(saliva). this shocks the pulp. correct by changing/fixing restorations.
What are the factors that influence whether a pulp survives or not? age of the patient, extent of injury = mild blow = faster recovery, how long was the tooth left untreated = shorter time = faster recovery, method of treatment = skill of dentist
Why do younger patients heal faster? they have more blood supply to the pulp because of a larger apical foramen
What are signs of subjective examination (symptoms described by patient)? chief complaint, duration of pain, painful stimuli, sensitivity
What are signs of objective examination (visual signs)? extent of decay, periodontal conditions, extensive restorations, mobility, swelling, discoloration, pulp exposure
Whats a positive test for percussion/palpation mean? inflammation in the periodontal ligament and endodontic treatment is required
How do you do a percussion test? tap on the incisal edge with mirror handle
how do you do a palpatation test? apply pressure to mucosa above apex of the root
how are ice pencils made? freeze a water filled cartridge or disposable needle cover
how do you preform a cold test with ice pencils? apply cold to cervical area of control tooth then the suspect tooth
what do you use for a heat test and how is it used? guttapercha, its heated in a flame and applied to the cervical third of the facial surface
How do you do a elctric pulp testing? used to detect whether pulp is vital or nonvital. you dry the a control tooth and use a conducting agent like toothpaste. set the dial at zero and increase it slowly until patient feels sensation. repeat on problem tooth
what factors influence the reliability of the pulp tester? teeth with extensive restorations, teeth with multiple canals, control and a failing teeth have different readings, moisture produces inaqurate readings, batteries
how do you do transillumination? use a unit light and mouth mirror, most effective on anterior teeth, necrotic pulp looks dark
What is radiolucency and what lesions show up as it? its a dark area on the xray and cysts and abscesses are examples
whats hyperemia? an excessive amount of blood flow to any part of the body, caused by trauma or caries. it responds readily to cold and less to heat. treat by removing insulting agent.
whats reversible pulpitis? inflammation of the pulp that can be reversed. its caused by an injured tooth left untreated. normal response to cold or pain to heat. treat by removing irritant and place a sedative
What is irreversible pulpitis? inflammation of the pulp that is incapable of healing.its caused by rev. pulpitits being left untreated. cold relieves pain or cause it and heat causes pain. Treat with a root canal or extraction
what is necrotic pulp? necrosis of the pulp tissues. caused by irri. pulpitis left untreated. no response to cold or heat. treat with root canal or extraction
What is a acute periapical abscess? a rapid inflammation rxn to pulpal infection resulting in pus and pressure from no drainage. caused by neucrotic pulp. no response to cold and pain to heat. treatment is root canal or extraction.
what is a chronic periapical abscess? a slow inflammatory rxn to pulp infection with a draining fistula. no discomfort
What is a periapical cyst? inflammatory response to pulp infection and neucrosis. fluid filled cavity lined with epithelial cells. caused by a periapical abcess not draining.
Whats a periodontal abscess? an inflammatory rxn caused by bacteria entrapped in the periodontal sulcus
What is indirect pulp cap? thin part of the dentin is still intact. calcium hydroxiide is placed to stimulate reparative dentin formation.
What is direct pulp cap? pulp has been slightly exposed but is still vital
Whats a pulpectomy? complete removal of the non vital dental pulp
whats a pulpotomy? removal of the coronal portion of an exposed vital pulp
whats a k-type file? debridement(cleaning) of the canal
Whats a hedstrom file? final enlargement of canal, looks like a christmas tree
whats a reamer file? remove dentin and smooth and increase size of the canal
what are broaches? used to remove vital inflammed hemorrhagic pulp tissue
whats a rubber stopper do? prevent perforation of the apex of the tooth
What are paper points? absorb the irrigating solution and to dry canals
Whats a electronic apex locator? use of a locator can reduce the number of diagnostic radiographs required for determing working length of a root canal
What are irrigation solutions? sodium hypochlorite-bleach mix with equal parts of sterile water, hydrogen peroxide, and parachlorophenol
What are reasons for surgical interventions? endodontic failure and exploratory surgery to see why healing has not occured, and biopsy
Whats a apicoectomy? surgically removing the apical portion of the root
whats a retrograde restoration? also know as root end filling
what is root amputation? used to remove one or more roots of a multirooted tooth without removing the crown
What is a hemisection? the root and the crown are cut lengthwise and removed
Created by: samfuller10