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PATH-Neoplasia

Soft Tissue, Bone, Blood Forming Tissues

QuestionAnswer
tumors of soft tissue lipoma (fat/adipose) tumors of nerve tissue tumors of muscle vascular tumors (blood/lymphatics)
lipoma benign tumor of mature fat cells >occur over 40 intraorally most common- buccal mucosa and vestibule
how does lipoma microscopically? well delineated tumor w/ mature fat cells uniform in size and shape
tx of lipoma surgical excision
name tumors of never tissue neurofibroma (von Recklinghausen disease) schwannoma granular cell tumor congenital epulis
neurofibroma and schwannoma benign tumors derived from Schwann cell (schwann cells component of CT surrounding nerve) most common intraoral-tongue
how does neruofibroma and schwannoma appear microscopically? neurofibroma (von Recklinghausen) -well delineated, diffuse proliferation of spindle shaped schwann cells schwannoma -spindle shaped schwann cells arranged in palisaded whorls around pink zone, surrounded by CT capsule
tx for neurofibroma and schwannoma surgical excision
granular cell tumor benign tumor composed of large cells w/ granular cytoplasm >often occurs tongue, then buccal mucosa painless nonnulcerated nodule found in adults w/ female sex predilection
how does granular cell tumor appear microscopically? large oval shaped w/ granular cytoplasm
tx of granular cull tumor surgical excision
congenital epulis benign neoplasm composed of cells closely resembling those seen in granular cell tumor present @ birth sessile or pedunculated mass on gingiva occurs anteriors of max. gingiva
tx of congenital epulis surgical excision
name tumors of muscle rhabdomyoma leiomyoma rhabdomyosarcoma
tx of tumors of muscle? or just rhabdomyosarcoma? multidrug chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery poor Px
rhabdomyoma benign tumor of striated muscle
leiomyoma benign tumor of smooth muscle
rhabdomyosarcoma malignant tumor of striated muscle *most common malignant soft tiuss. tumor of head and neck in children
name vascular tumors hemangioma lymphangioma malignant vascular tumors
hemangioma benign proliferation of capillaries capillary hemangioma-contains numerous small capillaries cavernous hemangioma-contains larger blood vessels most present @ brith or short after >50% occur in head/neck area most common-tongue > common in females
tx of hemangioma many undergo spontaneous remission surgery or injection of sclerosing solution
lymphangioma benign tumor of lymphatic vessels most present @ birth 50% arise in head/neck area most common location- tongue (looks ill defined mass w/ pebbly surface)
tx of lymphangioma surgical excision tends to reoccur
name malignant vascular tumors angiosarcoma, kaposi sarcoma, kaposi sarcoma+HIV
angiosarcoma
kaposi sarcoma skin, oral mucosa, historically seen in older men, more aggressive form arisen w/ HIV
kaposi sarcoma+HIV lesions- purple macules, plaques, exophytic tumors most common- hard palate, gingiva may also occur in immunodeficent pts caused by HHV8
tx of kaposi sarcoma HHV8 surgical excision, radiation therapy, or combo
name tumors of melanin producing cells melanotic nevi malignant melanoma
melanotic nevi developmental tumor of melanocytes or pigmented congenital lesion arises on skin or oral mucosa most often-hard palate or buccal mucosa 2xs in females than males id. in individuals 20-50yrs old
tx of melantic nevi biopsy surgical excision reoccurence rare
name tumors of bone and cartilage torur exotosis osteoma osteosarcoma tumors of cartilage
torus benign lesino composed of normal compact bone located- midline of palate, lingual aspects of manidble area of premolars
exotosis small nodular excrescence of nomal compact bone lcated-buccal aspect of max. and man. alveolar ridges
osteoma asymptomatic benign tumor composed of benign compact bone component of Gardner syndrome
how does osteoma appear radiographically? either sharply radioopaque mass w/in bone or attached to outer surface of bone
tx of osteoma surgical excision doesn't reoccur
osteosarcoma malignant tumor of bone-forming tiss. *most common primary malignant tumor of bone in pt <40yrs old (ave. age 37_ 2xs frequent in mandible > in males diffuse swelling or mass, painful paresthesia common when mandible involved
how does osteosarcoma appear radiographically? r/l or r/o destructive poorly defined lesion can involve adjacent soft tiss. "sunburst" pattern, asymmetric widening of pdl space
tx of osteosarcoma preoperative multiagent chemotherapy followed by surgery jaw tumors reoccur
tumors of cartilage >malignant than benign >males than females
tx of chondrosarcomas wide surgical excision poor Px
chondroma-tumors of cartilage benign tumor of cartilage
chondrosarcoma-tumors of cartilage malignant tumor of cartilage may occur max. or man.
name tumors of blood-forming tissues leukemia lymphoma multiple myeloma
leukemia overproduction of atypical WBC types classified according to cells that are proliferating: myelocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes >males than females
tx of leukemia chemotherapy, radiation therapy, corticosteriods Px depends on type of extent of disease
acute leukemia > in kids + young adults proliferation of immature WBC
chronic leukemia occurs middle-aged adults excess proliferation of mature WBC
monocyte leukemia most often exhibits oral lesions commonly see diffure gingival enlargment w/ persistent bleeding
lymphoma malignant male adults lymph node invovlment base of tongue, pharynx, soft palate (tonsillar area)
tx for lymphoma radiation, chemo, surgery or combo
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma malignant tumor of lymphoid tiss. gradual enlargement of lymph nodes most common-tonsils > in adult, males
tx of Non-hodgkin's lymphoma radiotherapy, surgery, chemotherapy, or combo
multiple myeloma systematic malignant proliferation of plasma cell destructive lesions in bone most pts >40yrs, males, 7th decade of life bone pain and swelling *elevation on single immunoglobulin- monoclonal spike
how does multiple myeloma appear radiographically? multiple radiolucent lesions mandible affects > max.
tx of multiple myeloma chemotherapy and radiation poor Px
metastatic tumors of jaws arise from thyroid, breast, lungs, prostate gland, kidneys most common-mandible painful, paresthesia, swelling, expansion of affcected bone, loosening of teeth in affected area most pt. adults, males
(T/F) complications may be caused only indirectly to anticancer therapy False. may be caused directly or indirectly
(T/F) complications can be acute or chronic True.
(T/F) Preventive measures can't be taken before anticancer therapy begins to lessen or prevent oral complications False. Measures can be taken
name radiation and chemotherapy side effects mucositis dysgusia xerostomia pain malnutrition dehydration change in dental growth (kids tooth decay gum disease
what types of changes can chemotherapy and radiation cause to the oral cavity? lining of mouth, saliva production, upset healthy balance of bacteria -these changes can lead to mouth sores, infection, tooth decay
side effects of chemotherapy reduce # WBC, weakens immune sys., easier to develop infection, acute complications
side effects of radiation therapy direct damage to oral tiss., salivary glands, bone acute complications can cause permanent tiss. damage pt then at risk for life-long complications common oral complications: xerostomia, tooth decay, infection, dysgusia, loss of function
preventive measures: eating well-balanced diet learning how to care for oral cavity during/after anticancer therapy have complete OH exam w/ dentist who is familiar w/ side effects
preventive oral health exam, checking for: mouth sores/infection tooth decay gun disease ill fitting dentures TMJ issues problems w/ salivary glands
Created by: 100000001783325