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Chapter 8 Cell Reproduction (Adv. Biology)

Mitosis is necessary for both growth and repair, as well as the maintenance of the ___ in all body cells Chromosome number
The spindle begins to assemble during... Prophase
Humans have 46 chromosomes. How many total chromatids does a human cell have during the G2 phase? 92
Plants cannot use a cleavage furrow to undergo cytokinesis because they have a ___ Cell wall
A duplicated chromosome is composed of two identical... Chromatids
Which phase does cytokinesis follow? Telophase
What is the checkpoint for the completion of DNA synthesis? G2 checkpoint
Cancer cells do not exhibit ___, so they are unphased/unstopped by the crowding of other cancer cells as well as healthy cells as they continue to divide Contact inhibition
Rats have 42 chromosomes. How many total chromatids does a rat have during the G1 phase? 42
Which cell cycle checkpoint allows damaged DNA to be repaired before it's passed on to the daughter cells? G2 checkpoint
Nuclear division Mitosis
Cytoplasmic division Cytokinesis
"Package" which allows DNA to be distributed to the daughter cells... Chromosome
Cells which result after initial cell has divided... Daughter cells
Constricted region of a chromosome that holds the identical halves together... Centromere
DNA and associated proteins that have the appearance of thin threads... Chromatin
Each identical half of a chromosome Sister chromatids
Humans have ___ pairs of chromosomes. 23
The protein molecule around which DNA is coiled is called a(n) ___ Histone
Process by which identical copies of cells are made for the overall growth and repair of an organism Mitosis
Type of cell division that produces two identical cells as a means of asexual reproduction; like in bacteria Binary fission
Orderly sequence of stages that takes place between the time a new cell has arisen from the division of the parent cell to the point when it has given rise to two daughter cells. Cell cycle
Most of the cell cycle is spent in ___ Interphase
Most eukaryotic cells have a(n) ____ # of chromosomes because each parent has contributed half of the chromosome to the new individual Even
Most eukaryotic cells rely on a ___; a cytoskeletal structure, to pull chromatids apart into daughter chromosomes Spindle
Primary microtubule organizing center of the cell... Centrosome
Instead of a cleavage furrow as in animal cells, a(n) ____ forms in plants cells during cytokines Cell plate
A disease in which the cell divides without control and without end Cancer
Cancers are classified according to where they ___ Originate
Spindle fibers attached to chromosomes disassemble and each pole receives a set of daughter chromosomes Anaphse
New nuclear membrane forms around each new set of genetic material; just before cytoplasmic division Telophase
During mitosis, sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and are now called... Daughter chromosomes
Each "bead" of the zig-zag pattern that is chromatin, formed by DNA wrapping around a histone, is known as a(n) ___ Nucleosome
Cell division occurs during the ___ of interphase, which encompasses both division of the nucleus and division of the cytoplasm. Mitotic phase
Barrel-like structures found in animal cells which help to anchor and support the microtubules taking part in the formation of the spindle Centrioles
Midway between the poles which the chromosomes will align during metaphase Spindle equator
The cell plate is formed by ___ containing membrane components fusing together. Vesicles
In order for a cell to reproduce successfully, the cell cycle must be ___ Controlled
At the ___, mitosis stops until chromosomes are properly aligned M checkpoint
Programmed cell death Apoptosis
Molecule that stimulates or inhibits an event Signal
Enzymes called ___ remove phosphate from ATP and add it to another molecule, which acts as an on/off switch for cellular activities. Kinases
Levels of proteins called ___ increase and decrease as the cell cycle progresses and must be present at the correct levels for the cell to proceed from G1 phase to the S phase and so on and so forth Cyclins
Prevents cells from overgrowing within the body... Contact inhibition
Repeating DNA base sequences at the end of a chromosome that have been described as protecting the chromosomes stability during the division process Telomere
Body cells... Somatic cells
Death through ___ prevents a tumor from developing in the first place Apoptosis
Cancers of the epithelial tissue that lines organs Carcinomas
Cancers arsing in muscle or connective tissue; especially cartilage and bone Sarcomas
Cancers of the blood Leukemias
Development of cancer Carcinogenesis
Cancers do not ___; lose their ability to specialize and do not contribute to the function of a body part Differentiate
Cancer cells often have ___ nuclei and may contain an abnormal number of chromosomes Enlarged
Multiple layers of abnormal cells caused by the development of a cancer Tumor
Tumor usually contained within a capsule and therefore cannot invade adjacent tissues Benign
Tumor that is invasive and may spread Malignant
Process by which cancer cells migrate from tumor of origin to other areas of the body causing further disruption/tumors Metastasis
Cancer cells may secrete factors that promote ___, formation of new blood vessels that will feed the developing tumor Angiogenesis
The goal of ___ is to kill cancer cells within a specific tumor by directing high energy beams at he tumor Radiation
___ is a way to kill cancer cells that have spread through the body Chemotherapy
___ drugs can prevent cell division of cancers by preventing cancer cell growth and their ability to receive signals required for continued growth and division Hormone therapy
Accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths Smoking
People who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes a day have lung cancer mortality rates ___ times greater than those of nonsmokers 15-25
Many skin cancers are ___ related Sun
Most dangerous type of skin cancer... Melanoma
A ___ (Xray image of breast tissue) can find a tumor within the breast tissue that may be too small to be felt Mammogram
Risk of cancers such as colon and uterine cancers is ___ greater among obese women 55%
Foods that help protect against cancer include fruits and ___ which are rich in Vit. A and C Dark green, leafy vegetables
Created by: SavannahElkins