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BJU Life Science 27

Bob Jones Life Science - Chapter 27

QuestionAnswer
adrenal glands An endocrine gland located on each kidney; secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and other hormones.
axons A part of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body.
brain stem A part of the brain that controls involuntary actions.
central nervous system The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
cerebral cortex The outer layer of the cerebrum; has many wrinkles and folds in its surface.
cerebellum The part of the brain that monitors and adjusts body activity involving muscle tone, body posture, and balance.
cerebrum The part of the brain containing the major motor and sensory centers; controls voluntary muscle activity and is the area of conscious thought.
choroid The middle layer of the eyeball.
cochlea A coiled, tubular structure in the inner ear; contains fluid and the neurons that sense sound waves.
cones A type of neuron in the retina that is sensitive to colors of light.
cornea The clear front portion of the sclera of the eye.
dendrites The part of the neuron that carries nerve impulses toward the cell body.
eardrum A membrane over the opening to the middle ear; vibrates when sound waves enter the ear.
endocrine system A system of hormone-producing glands.
eustachian tube A tube leading from the pharynx to the middle ear; equalizes air pressure in the ear.
hormone A chemical produced by living cells and transported to other body tissues where it causes a specific effect.
interneuron A neuron of a reflex arc; located in the central nervous system; transmits impulses from a sensory neuron to other neurons.
iris The colored (pigmented) portion of the eye; regulates the size of the pupil.
motor neuron A neuron that receives impulses from the central nervous system and stimulates muscles or glands.
nerves A number of neurons arranged side by side and wrapped in a protective covering.
neurons A long thin nerve cell that carries impulses between various parts of the body.
peripheral nervous system The part of the nervous system consisting of sensory receptors, sensory organs, and nerves that connect to the central nervous system.
pituitary glands An endocrine gland attached to the lower part of the brain; secretes several hormones.
pupil The circular opening in the iris of the eye.
reflex A simple immediate response to a change in the environment; usually involuntary.
reflex arcs A series of neurons that receive a stimulus and cause the body to react to it without conscious effort.
retina The innermost layer of the eye; composed of light-sensitive neurons.
rods A neuron in the retina used for vision in dim light.
sclera The outer protective layer of the eye.
semicircular canals A set of three structures, located in the inner ear; responsible for sensing balance.
sense organs An organ that consists of many sensory receptors and various tissues needed to keep the receptors functioning, e.g., the eye or the ear.
sensory neuron A neuron that receives stimuli and carries impulses toward the spinal cord or brain.
spinal cord The cord of nerve tissue that conducts messages between the brain and the rest of the body.
synapse The space between an axon and a dendrite or between an axon and the body structure it affects.
taste buds A group of cells that sense taste.
thyroid An endocrine gland in the neck; secretes the hormone thyroxine.
vestigial organ An organ that has no apparent function; evolutionists claim it had a function but has lost it over a long period of evolution.
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Created by: heidio