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BJU Life Science 22

Bob Jones Life Science - Chapter 22

central nervous system The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system The part of the nervous system consisting of sensory receptors, sensory organs, and the nerves that connect to the central nervous system
neuron A long, thin nerve cell that carries electrochemical impulses between various parts of the body
dendrite The part of a neuron that carries nerve impulses toward the cell body
axon The part of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body
nerve A bundle of neurons wrapped in a protective covering that carries impulses to different areas of the body
nerve impulse An electrochemical pulse that travels along the cell membrane of a neuron
synapse The space between an axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron or between an axon and the body structure it affects
reflex An immediate, involuntary response to a change in the environment
cerebrum The largest part of the brain, containing the major motor and sensory centers; controls voluntary muscle activity and is the area of conscious acitivity
cerebellum The second-largest part of the brain; monitors and adjusts involuntary body activities involving muscle tone, body posture, and balance
brian stem A part of the brain that controls breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, and some other involuntary actions
spinal cord The cord of nerve tissue that conducts messages between the brain and the rest of the body
sense organ An organ such as the eye or ear that consists of many sensory receptors and various tissues needed to keep the receptors functioning
sclera The outer, protective layer of the eye; the white of the eye
cornea The clear front portion of the sclera of the eye
choroid The middle layer of the eye
iris The colored (pigmented) portion of the eye that regulates the size of the pupil
pupil The circular opening in the iris of the eye that allows light to enter the eyeball
retina The innermost layer of the eye that is composed of light-sensitive neurons (photoreceptors)
rod A neuron in the retina that permits vision in dim light
cone A structure in conifers that contains seeds; a neuron in the retina that is sensitive to colors of light
tympanic membrane A membrane over the opening to the middle ear that sounds waves cause to vibrate
eustachian tube A tube leading from the pharynx to the middle ear that equalizes air pressure in the ear
cochlea The coiled, tubular structure in the inner ear that contains fluid and the neurons that sense sound waves
semicircular canals A set of three structures in the inner ear that are responsible for sensing balance
endocrine system A system of hormone-producing glands
hormone A chemical produced by living cells that is transported to other body tissues where it causes a specific effect
negative feedback system A method of hormone control in which the product inhibits the system
pituitary gland An endocrine gland attached to the lower part of the brain that secretes several hormones, including growth hormone
adrenal glands An endocrine gland located on each kidney that secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and other hormones
thyroid gland An endocrine gland in the neck that secretes the hormone thyroxine
Created by: heidio



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