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BJU Life Science 20

Bob Jones Life Science - Chapter 20

QuestionAnswer
homeostasis The internal balance or "steady state" that an organism must maintain.
erythrocyte A red blood cell that functions primarily to transport oxygen
hemoglobin The red pigment found in red blood cells that transports oxygen and some carbon dioxide
leukocyte A white blood cell that functions primarily in the body's immune system
antibody A protein the body produces to eliminate invading antigens, such as bacteria and viruses
platelet A cell fragment found in the blood that is involved in the formation of blood clots
blood plasma The fluid portion of the blood
artery A vessel that carries blood away from the heart
capillary One of many tiny blood vessels where diffusion of nutrients and exchange of gases between the blood and other body tissues take place
vein In plants, a structure containing vascular tissues in leaf blades; in animals and humans, a vessel that carries blood toward the heart
heart A muscular organ that pumps blood
atrium An upper heart chamber that receives blood from the lungs or the body
ventricle A lower heart chamber that pumps blood into the arteries
atrioventricular valve (AV valve) A one-way valve that separates an atrium from a ventricle in the heart and prevents the back flow of blood into the atrium
semilunar valve A structure in the heart that allows the blood to leave a ventricle but prevents it from returning
aorta The largest artery in the body carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to smaller arteries in the body
pulse The rhythmic expansion of the arteries caused by the pumping of the heart
blood pressure The pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries
inflammation The reaction of tissues to injury or infection that is characterized by swelling, redness, and increased temperature
anitgen A molecule that a macrophage recognizes as not belonging in the body, triggering an immune system reaction
immune system The body system that produces special chemicals and blood cells to fight specific pathogens
allergy The overreaction of the immune system to a foreign substance that is normally not a pathogen
kidney An organ found in most vertebrates that filters wastes from the blood
ureter A tube that carries urine from a kidney to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder An organ that temporarily stores the fluid wastes (urine) from a kidney
urethra The tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
nephron A microscopic unit that filters blood in a kidney
urine A fluid that contains wastes from the blood and is passed out of the body
Created by: heidio