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CPG Pathophysiology

QuestionAnswer
Acute Pulmonary Oedema LVF or myocardial dysfunction = ↓ in SV & ejection fraction Leads to ↑ in LVEDP & L atrial pressure ∴ pulm capillary pressure ↑ due to hydrostatic pressure overcoming oncotic pressure=fluid forced into alveolus Impaired Pulmonary compliance Surfactant
Anaphylaxis Severe, life threatening, systemic, allergic reaction to a previously encountered antigen, characterised by syptoms of Airways, GIT & CV System, resulting in CV and/or Respiratory Collapse. Sebsequent exposure>Reaction with Mast cells>degranulation>mediator release Airways = oedema and plugging Skin and CV = vasodilation and ↑ in capillary permeability GIT = N/V/cramping
Allergic Reaction Similar to Anaphylaxis, but NO systemic involvement. Hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen, resulting in a non-systemic, non-life threatening localised reaction
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Ballooning of a weakened section of vessel wall on the abdominal aorta. Typically below level of lumbar vertebrae, potentially causing dissection &/or rupture of aorta, leading to profound shock and mortality.
Autonomic Dysreflexia Life threatening, uncontrolled sympathetic reflex in patients with SCI at T6 or above, in response to external or visceral stimuli below the lesion sight. Causes imabalance between SNS and PNS, resulting in conditions associated with severe hypertension
Pulmonary Embolus Occlusion of the Pulmonary vasculature by: thrombus, tissue fragment, fat or air. Impact depends on the extent of pulmonary blood flow obstructed, V/Q mismatch: lung able to be ventilated but unable to partake in respiration due to the occlusion. Ventilation occurs without oxygenation of blood supply
COPD Obstructive Pulmonary Disease characterised by difficult expiration
Croup Laryngotracheobronchitis, causing acute inflammation and oedema at the narrow glottic and subglottic region of the upper airway. Leading to airway obstruction, associated respiratory distress and hypoxia. S/S - seal-bark cough, agitation, distress, cyanosis, spO2<92%, marked respiratory muscle use (sever), Lethargy (late)
Meningococcal Septicaemia Rapid progressive, life-threatening systemic inflammatory response to a bacterial infection as it enters the blood stream. Marked by fly-like symptoms, red petechial rash, resulting in multiple organ failure and CV collapse
Asthma A reversible hyperinflammatory disease of the small airways mediated by multiple trigger factors cause mast cell degranulation and release of inflammatory mediators. This is marked by mucosal oedema, bronchospasm and mucosal plugging. Triggers: pollution, URTI, allergen, cold air, drugs, exercise, stress/emotion
Created by: 573285069