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A2 2.4.5

structure of the human brain

Cerebrum Responsible for the elements of the nerous system that are associated with 'being human' including thought, imagination and reasoning
Copus callosum Connects the two cerebral hemispheres
cerebellum controls the coordination of movement and posture
hypothalamus controls the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine glands
medulla oblongata controls the action of smooth muscle in the gut wall, and controls breathing moevements and heart rate
cardiac centre found in the medulla oblongata and regulates heart rate
respiratory centre found in the medulla oblongata and controls the rate and depth of breathing
sensory areas receive impulses indirectly from the receptors
Association areas compare input with previous experiences in order to interpret what the input means and judge an appropriate response.
Motor areas send impulses to effectors (muscles and glands)
cerebellum plays a key role in coordinating balance and fine movement
spindle fibres specialised fibres in muscles which give information about muscle tension to the cerebellum
Wernicke's area Named after Karl Wernicke, who, in the 1860s identified a region that when damaged caused problems with understanding language - the posterior speech area
Broca's area named after Paul Broca who, in the 1860s, examined the brains of patients with an inability to speak (aphasia) - the anterior speech area
pituitary gland endocrine gland underneath the hypothalamus, made up of the anterior and posterior lobes
anterior lobe of pituitary gland secretes a number of different hormones under the control of the hypothalamus
posterior lobe of pituitary gland stores and releases antidiuretic hormone, which has been produced in special cells in the hypothalamus
Created by: Holden0611



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