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Intro to Genetics

Genetics, Monohybride Crosses, Key terms.

Gene: A basic unit of inheritance consisting of a length of DNA on a Chromosome.
Allele: Different forms of a Gene inherited from Parents.
Genotype: The genetic make up of an organism.
Phenotype: The physical and chemical characteristics of an Organism.
Recessive Allele: Alleles whose phenotype will only be displayed if the organism is Homozygous for that Allele.
Dominant Allele: Alleles whose Phenotype will be apparent whenever it is present, in both Homozygous and Heterozygous situations.
Homozygous: An organism that has the same Allele of a Gene. (E.g Both recessive Alleles for Cystic Fibrosis).
Heterozygous: An organism that had two different types of Allele for a Gene (e.g a Pea with Gg).
Monohybrid Inheritance: The inheritance of a gene from two Homozygous parents that have different alleles.
Somatic Gene Therapy: Gene Therapy in which the Therapeutic Genes are transferred to the cells of the body. The treatment is limited to the individual and is not hereditary.
Germline Gene Therapy: Gene Therapy in which the Therapeutic genes modify the Germ (sex) cells, thus making the treatment Hereditary.
Gene Therapy: The process of replacing defective Genes with Therapeutic Genes which code for the correct protein.
Name the types of Genetic Screening:
What are the issues with Germline Gene Therapy? Altering the DNA of an embryo in early stages could cause unwanted side effects. Also, where would the line be drawn? What is okay to change and what isn't?
Name the four types of Genetic Screening: Preimplantation Genetic Testing (done in IVF), Identification of Carries (done on parents before conception), Amniocentesis and Chorionic Sampling.
Amniocentesis and disadvantages: Samples of the Amniotic fluid taken at 16+ weeks, cells analysed for genetic disorders. Disadvantages include 1% chance of spontaneous abortion, late testing so termination difficult and long testing time.
Chorionic Sampling and disadvantages: Samples of the Embryonic tissues taken at 8-10 weeks, cells are actively dividing so quicker results. Disadvantages include, 2-4% chance of spontaneous abortion, no sex linked diagnostic as X chromosome inactive.
Preimplantation Genetic Screening: This is done during IVF, cells are taken from embryos that are 8 -10 cells big and the DNA is screened for genetic disorders, the parents then may choose which embryos are implanted. Playing god?
Identification of Carries: Potential parents may be screened for genetic diseases (such as CF) and if both are carriers they may alter their perception on having children.
What is prenatal screening? The screening of pregnancies to determine if the embryo has any genetic diseases.
Created by: mjwilson1988
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