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AP Biology

Chapter 9 - Mitosis & Meiosis guided notes, definitions

QuestionAnswer
Mitosis A nuclear division, divides the nucleus so that both daughter cells are genetically identical
Nuclear division Divides the genetic material in the nucleus
Cytokinesis After nuclear division, divides the cytoplasm
Gene A segment of DNA that serves as a unit of hereditary information
Chromotin The complex of DNA and proteins that make up eukaryotic chromosomes
Chromosomes Structures in the cell nucleus that consist of chromotin and genes
Genome The genetic material in a cell or individual organism
Meiosis A nuclear division, reduction division, producing daughter cells that contain half the genetic information of the parent cell
What is meant by the concept that cells go through a cell cycle? Life of a cell from its origin to division into 2 new daughter cells
What are the key roles of cell division? Eukaryotic chromosomes, cell cycle, and mitosis
What is the significance of chromosome replication? They contain hundred of thousands of genes
Phases of the cell cycle Interphase and M phase - Interphase contains G1 (gap1), S phase (DNA synthesis), and G2 (gap 2) - M phase contains M (mitosis) and then cell ceases division
Stages of Interphase and Mitosis Interphase, Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
How does the spindle apparatus distribute chromosomes to the daughter cells? It pulls them to the opposite poles
What is the role of kinetochores and the microtubules? Use motor proteins that "walk" chromosomes along attached microtubule
How does cytokinesis differ in animal and plant cells? Plant cells go through cell plate. Animal cells go through cleavage furrow
Eukatyotic mitosis is thought to have evolved from binary fission.
Why is the regulation of the cell cycle critical to normal cells? For normal growth, development, and maintenance
What is the G1 checkpoint and where does it fit into the cycle? It decides if DNA synthesis can begin. It's a primary decision (restriction) point, if the cell gets a "go signal" it will divide, if not the cell exits the cycle and goes to the G0 phase
What evidence is there that regulation is chemical in nature? Cytoplasm gets a cue from chemical signals when it's time for the cell to divide. The signals are usually proteins.
Kinase Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to acceptor molecules
Cyclin Regulatory proteins whose levels oscillate during the cell cycle; activate CDKs
CDKs Protein kinases involved in controlling the cell cycle
Describe the mechanism for regulating the passage of the cell into anaphase. APC (anaphase-promoting complex) initiates anaphase by allowing degradation of the protein
Describe what triggers mitosis from G2. CDK associates with cyclin which forms M-CDK. M-CDK phosphorylates proteins which activate mitosis
What is the role of ubiquitin? Small regulatory protein
What happens when cancer develops? Unlimited growth, ignore checkpoints, escape apoptosis, immortality
What is the role of p53? Halts cell division if it detects damaged DNA
Asexual Reproduction Single-celled eukaryotes reproduce asexually and simple multicellular eukaryotes reproduce asexually.
Sexual Reproduction Involves the union of two sex cells, or gametes, to form a single cell called a zygote.
What is the role of meiosis in sexual reproduction? Has 2 cell divisions, produces up to 4 cells, genetic information from parents is shuffled, haploid cell has unique combination of genes.
What is a karyotype? Map of organisms chromosomes
Indentify several things that can be seen with a karyotype? You can see the chromosome makeup, how many chromosomes, if there is anything abnormal
Products of mitosis Produces 2 cells for growth and repairs somatic cells
Products of meiosis Produces 4 cells in 2 cell divisions and produces gametes
Explain the double division of meiosis. DNA replication create sister chromatid. They divide twice to create 4 cells.
Independent Assortment Homologous chromosomes in Meiosis 1
Random Fertilization Any 2 parents will produce a zygote with over 70 trillion diploid cominations
Crossing Over Creates completely new combinations of traits in next generation.
Differences between mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis - 1 division, daughter cells genetically indentical to parent cell, and produces 2 cells
Differences between mitosis and meiosis. Meiosis - 2 divisions, daughter cells genetically different from parent, and produces 4 cells
What is the significance of genetic variation and natural selection? Genetic variation drives evolution.
Created by: crescenti