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Heart & Neck Vessels

Health Assessment Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Angina pectoris Acute chest pain that occurs when myocardial demand exceeds its oxygen supply
Aortic regurgitation (Aortic insufficiency) incompetent aortic valve that allows backward flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole
Aortic stenosis Calcification of aortic valve cups that restricts forward flow of blood during systole
Aortic valve The left semilunar valve separating the left ventricle and the aorta
Apex of the heart Tip of the heart pointing down toward the 5th left intercostal space
Apical impulse (Point of maximal impulse, PMI) puslation created as the left ventricle rotates against the chest wall during systole, normally at the 5th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line
Base of the heart Broader area of theheart's outline located at the 3rd right and left intercostal space
Bell (of the stethoscope) Cup-shaped endpiece used for soft, low-pitched heart sounds
Bradycardia Slow heart rate, <50 beats per minute in the adult
Clubbing Bulbous enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes that occurs with chronic cyanotic heart and lung conditions
Coarctation of aorta Severe narrowing of the descending aorta, a congenital heart defect
Cor pulmonale Right ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure due to pulmonary hypertension
Cyanosis Dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Diaphragm (of the stethoscope) Flat endpiece of the stethoscope used for hearing relatively high-pitched heart sounds
Diastole The heart's filling phase
Dyspnea Difficult, labored breathing
Edema Swelling of legs or dependent body part due to increased insterstitial fluid
Erb's Point Traditional auscultatory area in the 3rd left intercostal space
First heart sound (S1) Occurs with closure of the atrioventricular (AV) valves signaling the beginning of systole
Fourth heart sound (S4) (S4 gallop; atrial gallop) very soft, low-pitched ventricular filling sound that occurs in late diastole
Gallop rhythm The addition of a 3rd or a 4th heart sound makes the rhythm sound like the cadence of a galloping horse
Inching Technique of moving the stethoscope incrementally across the precordium through the auscultatory areas while listening to the heart sounds
LVH (Left ventricular hypertrophy) Increase in thickness of myocardial wall that occurs when the heart pumps against chronic outflow obstruction
MCL (midclavicular line) Imaginary vertical line bisecting the middle of the clavicle in each hemithorax
Mitral regurgitation (Mitral insufficiency) Incompetent mitral valve allows regurgiation of blood back into left atrium during systole
Mitral stenosis Calcified mitral valve impedes forward flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole
Mitral Valve Left AV valve spearating the left atria and ventricle
Palpitation Uncomfortable awareness of rapid or irregular heart rate
Paradoxical Splitting Opposite of a normal split S2 so that the split is heard in expiration, and in inspiration the sounds fuse to one sound
Pericardial Friction Rub High-pitched, scratchy extracardiac sound heard when the precordium is inflamed
Physiologic Splitting Normal variation in S2 heard as two separate components during inspiration
Precordium Area of the chest wall overlying the heart and great vessels
Pulmonic regurgitation (Pulmonic insufficiency) Backflow of blood through incompetent pulmonic valve into the right ventricle
Pulmonic Stenosis Calcification of pulmonic valve that restricts forward flow of blood during systole
Pulmonic Valve Right semilunar valve separating the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Second Heart Sound (S2) Occurs with closure of the semilunar valves, aortic and pulmonic, and signals the end of systole
Summation Gallop Abnormal mid-diastolic heart sound heard when both the pathologic S3 and S4 are present
Syncope Temporary loss of consciousness due to decreased cerebral blood flow (fainting), caused by ventricular asystole, pronounced bracycardia, or ventricular fibrillation
Systole The heart's pumping phase
Tachycardia Rapid heart rate, >90 beats per minute in the adult
Third Heart Sound (S3) Soft, low-pitched ventricular filling sound that occurs in early diastole (S3 gallop) and may be an early sign of heart failure
Thrill Palpable vibration on the chest wall accompanying severe heart murmur
Tricuspid Valve Right AV valve separating the right atria and ventricle
Created by: jsl0009