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BIO205 - Ch 2 - Chemical Principles - RioSalado - AZ

Isotopes Atoms w/different number of neutrons - Ex: 16/8O, 17/8O, 18/8O
Chemical properties of atoms are largly a function of __. Number of electrons in outermost electron shell.
Valence Valence Combining capacity of atom - number of missing electrons in outermost electron shell - "bonding capacity".
Compound A molecule containing at least 2 different kinds of atoms.
Atomic number Number of protons in nucleus
Mass number Total number of protons & neutrons
Chemical bonds Atoms sharing electrons
First shell Hold 2 electrons (1 orbital)
Second shell Holds 8 electrons (4 orbitals)
Third shell Holds 18 electrons (9 orbitals)
Molecules held together because? The valence electrons of the combining atoms form attractive forces (chemical bonds) between atomic nuclei.
Example of weaker ionic bond in immune system. Antigen-antibody reaction in which antibodies combine with antigens to combat infection.
Cations An atom where outer electron shell is less than 1/2 filled & will lose electrons to form positive ions - K+, Ca2+, Na+
Anions Atom with more than 1/2 filled outer electron shell will gain electrons & form negative ions - I-, Cl-, S2-
Ion Atom that has gained or lost an electron & carries + or _ charge. H+ = Hydrogen ion
Covalent bond When atoms share one or more pairs of electrons - single stronger than ionic - more common than ionic in organisms (H-H).
Ionic bond 2 ions held together by opposite charges - when atoms have gained or lost outer electrons - Ex: NaCl
Double Covalent Bond Two atoms sharing 2 electron pairs
Triple Covalent Bond Sharing 3 electron pairs
Polar covalent bond When 2 atoms don't share electrons equally - electronegative - water molecules is example.
Hydrogen bond Weak attraction formed between covalently bound hydrogen atom & an electronegative atom - DNA is example - holds 2 nucleotide strands together.
Solvent Ions & polar molecules easily dissolve in it.
Sphere of hydration Clustering of water molecules around a solute - multiple ions dispersed in a fluid.
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid - made 4 kinds of deoxyribonucleotides - adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine. Base-pairing - the sequence of bases encodes heritable information.
RNA Ribonucleic acids - made of 4 ribonucleotide monomers - uracil, adenine, guanine, & cytosine - How cell retrieves & uses genetic info in DNA to build proteins.
Hydrogen & carbon form __ bond quite easy because __. Covalent - their outer electron shells are half-filled
Covalent bonds are formed by __ electrons, while ionic are formed by __ between atoms that have lost or gained electrons. sharing-attraction (become + or - charged).
__ are weak but do serve as bridges between different molecules or between various portions of same molecule. hydrogen bonds
In a molecule of water, all the electrons tend to be closer to the __ nucleus. oxygen
Elements most frequently involved in hydrogen bond. oxygen & nitrogen
molecular weight Sum of the atomic weights of all its atoms.
One __ of a substance is its molecular weight in grams. mole - ex: 1 mole of H2O = 18g [(2x1)+16]
Chemical energy Change of energy whenever bonds are formed/broken during chemical reaction.
Chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than released. Endergonic reaction
Chemical reaction that releases more energy than absorbed. Exergonic reaction
Synthesis reaction When 2 or more atoms/ions/molecules combine into larger molecules - "new bonds formed" A+B=AB
Combining substances in reaction. reactants
Pathways of synthesis reaction in living organisms are __. anabolic (anabolism)
2 examples of anabolism (1) combining of sugar molecules to form starch & (2) amino acids to form proteins
Decomposition Reaction bonds are broken - larger molecules split into smaller - AB=A + B = catabolism in living organisms.
2 examples of catabolism (1) breakdown of sucrose (table sugar) into glucose & fructose during digestion, (2) bacterial decomposition/bioremediation.
Inorganic compounds lack __. carbon - structurally simple - water, oxygen, CO2, salts, acids, bases, etc.
What 2 elements are always fround in organic compounds? Carbon & hydrogen - structurally complete.
Most common bonds in organic compounds. Covalent bonds - atoms sharing one or more pairs of electrons.
__ is the medium for most chemical reactions. water
The total charge of H2O molecule is __ but oxygen retion __ and hydrogen. neutral, negative, positive
Every H2O molecule can form __ hydrogen bonds with nearby molecules. 4
solvent Dissolving medium - ex: water due to polarity
dissociation Separation into individual molecules in water.
solute A substance dissolved in another substance
Polarity of H2O facilitates splitting & rejoining of __ & __ ions. hydrogen (H+) & hydroxide (OH-)
What protects cell from temperature fluctuations? Hydrogen bonds of water
ionization Breaking apart (dissociation) into ions - acids & bases
An __ dissociates into 1 or more H+ (cations) ions & 1 or more negative ions (anions). acid - proton (H+) donor
A __ dissociates into 1 or more H+ (cations) ions plus negative charged hydroxide (OH-) that can accept protons. base - proton (H+) acceptor
pH measures? Amount of H+ in solution - "potential of hydrogen"
Fungi tolerate __ conditions & prokaryotes __. acidic - alkaline
isomer 2 molecules with same chemical formula, but different structures & properties - ex: glucose & fructose
carbohydrates Contain an aldehyde or a ketone group, and one or more hydroxyl groups
lipids mainly hydrocarbon
proteins Are one or more polypeptide chains with as many as several thousand covalently linked amino acids.
nucleic acids (nucleotides) Chains of units that each consists of a 5-carbon sugar, phosphate, & a nitrogen-containing base
waxes Have long-chain fatty acids tightly packed & bonded to long-chain alchols or carbon rings
sterols lipids w/no fatty acids - Cholesterol
Amino acid Small organic compounds with amino group, carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, & its R group. Used in constructing proteins.
Peptide bond Bonds formed in polypeptide chains
Polypeptide chain 3 or more amino acids
Phosphate In nucleotides (ATP), DNA, RNA - many proteins - phospholipids. Water soluble - acidic.
Sulfhydrl -SH - In amino acid cystine - helps stabolize protein structure - disulfide bridges.
Monomers Subunits of larger molecules
Polymers Large organic molecule containing subunits.
Hydroxyl -OH, In alcohols (amino acids, sugars) water soluble - easy place to split or join molecules.
Methyl Fatty acid chains - insoluable in water
Carbonyl In sugars, amino acids, nucleotides - water soluable (aldehyde & ketone) - prone to electron transfers.
Carboxyl In amino acids, fatty acids, water soluable - highly polar - acts as acids - releases H+
Amino In amino acids & nucleotides - base - accepts H+ - water soluble
monosaccharides/oligosaccharide/polysaccharides Simple carb/short chain sugar/"complex carbohydrates"
Lipids Nonpolar hydrocarbons - don't dissolve in water - mix with other nonpolar substances
fats Lipids w/1, 2, or 3 fatty acid tails - from glycerol molecule.
Fatty acid Starts as carboxyl group attached to carbon atoms
Unsaturated fatty acid Contain one or more double covalent bonds
Saturated fatty acid Single bonds only
Neutral fats Triglycerides - 3 fatty acid tails & 1 glycerol head - butter, lard, vegetable oils.
Organic compounds Molecules that contain carbon and at least 1 hydrogen
Hydrocarbons Consist only of hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to carbon - gasoline, fossil fuels
Functional groups Organic compounds which are particular atoms or clusters of atoms covalently bonded to carbon.
Created by: Ladystorm