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AP Biology

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

Identify some specific processes the cell does with ATP. Glycolysis goes through a process to make ATP
Explain why ATP is such a "high energy" molecule. Because it's created from reactions like Glycolysis
How does ATP "couple reactions"? The energy released by exergonic reactions fuel endergonic reactions
What is the name of enzymes which phosphorylate molecules? NADH
Oxidation The loss of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule
Reduction The gain of one or more electrons by an atom, ion, or molecule
What is the role of NAD+ & FAD+2 is respiration? Electron carriers that transport electrons to where they need to go to make ATP
Explain why respiration is considered exergonic. Can happen with O² and it is in cytosol
Glycolysis starts with glucose and produces pyruvate
The Kreb's cycle takes place in the: mitochondrial matrix
Pyruvate is converted to 2C before the Krebs cycle
The Electron Transport Chain is located in the: mitochondria
Describe the role of the Electron Transport Chain. What happens to the electrons and H+? Proteins pass electrons from one carrier protein to the next
What is chemiomosis and how is it generated? Electron transport and ATP synthesis are coupled by means of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryote
How does the mitochondrion generate ATP? ADP is added with Pi and then you get ATP
What happens to most of the energy released during cell respiration? It is recycled and used again
Alcholic fermentation converts glucose to: Ethanol
Alcholic fermentation is utilized by what organisms? Bacteria, yeast
Lactic acid fermentation converts glucose to: Lactate
Lactic acid fermentation is utilized by what organisms? Animals, some fungi
Identify example of negative feedback. Electron not carried
Identify example of positive feedback. An electron transport chain
Write the summary equation for cellular respiration. C6 H12 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ≈ 36ATD
Where did the glucose come from? Photosynthesis
Where did the O2 come from? From plants
Where did the CO2 come from? Food we eat
Where did the H2O come from? Oxygen being final electron receptor
Where did the ATP come from? Glycolysis, etc, chemiomosis
What else is produced that is not listed in this equation? NADH and NADH2
What was the evolutionary advantage of the proto-eukaryotes that engulfed aerobic bacteria but did not digest them? They were bigger that the aerobic bacteria that they engulfed
Why do we eat? To live and put energy back in our body
Why do we breathe? To bring in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide
Respiration The opposite process extracting that stored energy from glucose to form ATP
Cytochromes Modified proteins that participate as carrier proteins in the chain
Oxygen The last electron acceptor at the end of the chain
Forms water ½O2 accepts the two electrons along with 2 H+
What is the value of the alcoholic fermentation pathway? It replenishes NAD+ so that glycolysis can produce ATP.
What is the purpose of oxygen in aerobic respiration? Oxygen accepts electrons at the end of an electron transport chain.
Which of the following sequences correctly indicates the potential ATP yield of the indicated molecules from greatest ATP yield to least ATP yield? Glucose, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, NADH
Glycolysis decomposition of glucose to pyruvate
Lactate (lactic acid) fermentation Transfers hydrogen atoms to pyruvate reducing it to lactate
Pyruvate 3 carbon molecule
ATP common source of activation energy for metabolic reactions
Aerobic respiration respiration in the presense of O2
Electron transport chain Consists of proteins that pass electrons from one carrier protein to the next
Catabolism Releases energy by splitting complex molecules into smaller components
Anabolism Synthesis of complex molecules from simpler building blocks (helps maintain cell or organism)
Alchol fermentation Yeasts that carry out aerobic respiration when oxygen is not available
Mitochondria Membrane enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells (generates most of the cell's supply of ATP)
Proton motive force Movement of hydrogen+ through ATP synthesis powering production of ATP
Chemiosmosis Build up of H+, so that H+ flow through ATP synthase enzyme to build ATP
Created by: crescenti
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