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Speech The spoken expression of language
Language Words and grammar used to express our thoughts
Cognition Mental processes that help us learn to use speech and language
Subsystems used to produce speech sounds Respiration, phonation, articulation
Speech sounds are categorized according to place, manner and voicing
IPA International Phonetic Alphabet a system used for transcribing speech according to the sounds used in speaking words rather than according to the way they are spelled
Morpheme The minimal unit of meaning that carries a semantic interpretation; the smallest unit of language; morphemes comprise the lexicon
Morpheme Example: Cat - 1 morpheme cats - 2 morphemes (cat = 1 and /s/ = 2nd)
Phoneme: A basic speech segment that has the linguistic function of distinguishing minimal units of meaning in spoken language; a basic SOUND segment that distinguishes a morpheme
Grapheme a unit in the WRITING system of a language
Daughter: # of graphemes; # of phonemes Graphemes = 8 Phonemes = 4
True or False: The act of speaking depends on an intricate and complex system of structures and their physiology working together to allow human beings to use speech to communicate. True
Manner of Articulation how the sound is produced; how the airstream is modified as it passes through the vocal tract.
Place of Articulation Refers to which articulators are involved in the production of specific speech sounds; WHERE the sound is produced.
True or False: Relevance of Phonetics relates to how knowledge of speech sounds can be used to assess and manage people with communication disorders. True
Phonetic Errors Addition Deletion/Omission Substitution Distortion Can also be CORRECT though...
Phonetic Transcription a precise representation of what was said
Transcription provides the basis for what? Diagnosing a speech disorder and developing an appropriate intervention strategy.
We will be learning Broad Transcription which is a type of transcription where: symbols represent consonants, vowels, and dipthongs produced in a speech sample.
Another type of transcription is Narrow Transcription which involves symbols to represent target sounds and considers slight variations.
Linguistic Complexity = Length of the stimulus
Examples of Linguistic Complexity in a Speech Sample: Sounds in isolation Sounds in words Sounds in sentences Sounds in continuous speech
Response Complexity Demands of the task captures situational differences between scoring and transcribing (transcribe only 1 target sound/situational unit, or entire speech sample.)
How many graphemes in English? 26
How many phonemes in English? 42
Alphabet A set of letters or other characters used for writing a language
Phonemes: a word can have 1 or more. Use / / Phonemes are a basic sound segment that has the linguistic function of distinguishing words
Physically, speech is: a pattern of movement of the speech organs
Speech is also a pattern of what kind of vibration? Acoustic vibration
True or False: For speech to be understandable, physiologic, acoustic and anatomical properties must work together. True
Different usage patterns within a language is known as a dialect
Dialects are a difference, not a disorder
A lisp is not a speech difference; rather a lisp is a disorder
SAE Standard American English
Minimal Contrasts 2 words that differ by only one phoneme (cat and bat)
IPA International Phonetic Alphabet phonetic symbols included in a universal symbol system; some represent the printed alphabet and others do not.
A discipline that focuses on sounds that have become disordered or different is clinical phonetics
Phonemes may be positioned in initial, medial or final positions
Initial, medial or final positions denote sound positions in a word
Syllable initial sounds may be referred to as releasing sounds
Syllable final sounds may be referred to as arresting sounds
Syllable a grouping of speech movements usually linked together with other syllables in rhythmic pattern; highly adaptive units for articulatory organization
Coarticulation the production of a sound is influenced by other sounds around it
Diacritic marks phonetic symbols used to represent variants of phonemes; placed in (brackets) instead of / /
A syllables in English contain a vowel
Consonants can be described as prevocal or postvocalic depending on the position of the vowel
Open syllables end in a vowel
Closed syllables end in a consonant
Syllable stress part of a word that gets the most emphasis
Stressed syllable gets more emphasis and higher pitch
Every single syllable word is stressed
3 speech production subsystems are Respiratory Laryngeal Articulatory
The power source for speech is the Respiratory System
Respiratory Anatomy Lungs, Ribcage, Abdomen, Internal and External Intercoastal Muscles, Diaphram
Speech Breathing Quick inhalation and long, controlled exhalation
Vibratory source for speech is the Laryngeal system
Voice is produced in the larynx
Phonation sound generated by the vocal fold system
Voice Production/phonation vocal folds vibrate very rapidly to produce a sound pressure wave that travels up the vocal tract
Voicing: Only some consonants are voiced; all vowels are voiced
Vocal folds are slightly open during quiet breathing and closed prior to speech sounds
Adams Apple formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage
Thyroarytenoid muscles form the true vocal folds
pitch has to do with length of vocal folds and speed of vibration, frequency in Hz, cycles per second
Men: 120 Hz
Women 210 Hz
Loudness = intensity = dB = sound pressure level = greater vocal fold adduction and increased subglottal pressure prior to release burst
Articulators Articulators: Tongue, Lips, Velum/Soft Palate, Teeth, Mandible, Hard Palate could be 6th…
The only time the velum is open (dropped down) is for nasal sounds
When the velum is closed (trap door comes UP) all sound except nasal sounds.
What is the lower tip of the soft palate called? the uvula it is vestigial in man except for drinking, maybe.
Velum not closed off when it should be = hypernasality
Denasal or hyponasal when you have a cold and can't use nose to resonate
A sound produced by relatively free passage of airstream vowel
One or more areas of vocal tract narrowing or some degree of constriction partial or complete consonant
Functions of lower jaw: skeletal support for tongue and lower lip and contributes to movements of tongue and lower lip
Parts of tongue tip, blade/dorsum, base, body
Stress: increased loudness, higher pitch, increased duration
Lips opening, closing, rounding, protruding



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