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Psychology

Life Span Developmental Psychology by tjclpn - i think

QuestionAnswer
Development refers to changes that occur over time, across the entire life span
Physical growth development of human organs in the prenatal period, the growth in size and changes in functioning that occur with more advanced aging
Cognitive development concept of intelligence as well as to specific aspects of our thinking processes such as moral reasoning, language development, memory skills and the ability to learn to read, write or do math
Social/emotional development encompasses temperament, personality, and socialization into a particular cultural group
Multidimensional physical, cognitive, emotional, personality
Age-graded designated roles or activities based on age
History-graded each generation is influenced by the historical events that occur in their lifetime
Non-normative many events that are not universal or even widespread, but can have significant influence on person's development
Continuity Theorists believe that development is the result of gradual and cumulative changes over the entire life span
Discontinuity Theorists believe that development occurs in discrete, identifiable stages
Scientific method formulating a hypothesis then testing the hypothesis, drawing conclusions, and making the findings available to others
Naturalistic Observations watching people in their natural setting and recording information about how people behave, no manipulation of the setting by the observer
Field Experiments observation takes place in a natural setting, but there is some manipulation or control over variables
Controlled Experiments done in a laboratory setting where much greater control over extraneous variables can take place
Independent variables ones that are manipulated by the experimenter
Dependent variables outcome measures of interest
Confounding variables things that might affect the result in unanticipated ways or that were not controlled for in the design of the experiment
Cross-sectional study a study of only one point in time
Longitudinal a study at many different times
Sequential design a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal
Cohort differences differences that arise from the unique sociocultural factors to which people of different generations are exposed
Data analysis statistical procedures that are done to make sense of the findings of a study
Descriptive research also called correlational, variables are related but cannot say whether one caused the other
Descriptive statistics means, medians, modes, frequencies, and simple correlations
Inferential statistics used to determine if there is a significant different between two or more scores, or to determine if some score could occur just by chance
Ethology the idea that behavior is largely influenced by biological factors, particularly behaviors that have developed over time
Psychodynamic theories originated with Sigmund Freud, the idea that we have an unconscious mind that contains emotionally charged memories of early lifer experiences
Sigmund Freud founder of psychodynamic theory
Id centered on seeking pleasure and avoiding pain and is present at birth
Ego centered on reality principle and starts to develop in infancy
Superego the conscience
Conscious information that is readily available to us
Unconscious repressed because is sexually charged or includes painful memories is available through hypnosis
Preconscious the intermediary between the unconscious and conscious minds, not usually aware of it but it pops out in dreams, jokes, and slips of the tongue
Defense mechanisms the way the ego defend us from daily assaults usually unconscious, repression, regression, projection, rationalization,
Freud's Oral stage ages 0-18 months, erogenous zone is the mouth, infant explores the world with his/her mouth, learning about things by sucking, biting, and chewing on them
Freud's Anal stage 18 months to 3 years, erogenous zone in the anus, the child must learn to follow adult prescriptions about toileting and cleanliness. takes pleasure from expelling feces whenever s/he wants, then learns to take pleasure from retaining feces until a appro
Freud's Phallic stage for boys 3-5years erog zone penis, oedipal complex, mother is object of sexual desire, but father is a rival, notices that men and women look different and assumes women were castrated, develops castration anxiety, which motivates the boy to repress sexual desire
Freud's Phallic stage for girls 3-5 years, Electra complex, girls also desire their mothers, but assume their mothers are inferior because castrated, develop penis envy and sublimate desire for father, who is more powerful, into desire to have a baby
Freud's Latency stage 6-12 years, erogenous zone none, sexual traumas have been repressed, so the child is socialized by parents and school and learns more about the world free of sexual desires
Freud's Genital stage 12-adult, erogenous zone genitals, sexual desires reawaken and if all went well earlier, child will express "normal" heterosexual desires
Erik Erikson developed psychosocial theory
Trust vs Mistrush 0-18 months, infant either learns that his/her needs will be met (trust) or not met (mistrust)
Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt 18 months-3 years, starts to assert independence, if prevented from autonomy by overprotective parents, will doubt own skills
Initiative vs Guilt 3-5 years, learning to carry out tasks from planning to completion, if not can feel irresponsible and guilty
Industry vs Inferiority 6-12 years, child spends much of the day in school, success at academic and other tasks makes the child feel productive, inferiority affects self-esteem
Identity vs Identity Confusion 12-18 years, Adolescents must "find themselves" and set future goals, or they will feel adrift
Intimacy vs Isolation early adult years, fusing one's identity with another and making a long-term commitment is crucial for young adults, those who are not ready for intimacy are ofter isolated
Generativity vs Stagnation middle adult years, guiding the next generations, whether through helping one's own children or mentoring, provides life satisfaction
Integrity vs Despair older adult years, if upon looking back, the elder is satisfied with what s/he has done, a sense of integrity develops, if not despair and regret ensue
Daniel Levinson studied the development of men from midlife to older age, contributed to discussion of "midlife crisis"
George Vaillant expanded on Erikson's stages for midlife and olderadulthood, and proposed additional developmental tasks for these to age cohorts contributed to discussion of "midlife crisis"
Behaviorist do not view development as occurring in discrete stages, focus entirely on the nurture, or environment side of the nature-nurture debate and consider development more as a continuous process
Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning
John Watson father of behaviorism, explored the application of classical conditioning in humans
B.F. Skinner proposed operant conditioning
Operant conditioning differs from classical in that no reflexive behavior is required, people are reinforced for certain behaviors that result in pleasurable outcomes that are likely to be repeated whereas unpleasant outcomes or no reinforcement are not likely repeated
Edward Thorndike extended behaviorist learning principles to a more precise science by attempting to qualify the relationships among stimuli and responses ex. cats escaping from puzzle boxes
Albert Bandura believed that operant and classical conditioning principles alone could not explain human behavior and added that people could learn by observation and imitation and that people do not imitate all the behaviors that they observe, did a study on aggression
Jean Piaget proposed a organismic theory of child cognitive development, children where active participants in their own learning, assimilation and accommodation
Assimilation taking information as it is and incorporating that new knowledge into an existing framework (schema)
Accommodation when the information does not fit into any existing schema or challenges an old schema
Piaget's Sensorimotor stage 0-2 years, infants learn by using their senses and motor skills, learning is largely trial and error, enters the world with reflex behaviors and learns more complex sensorimotor patterns over time
Piaget's Preoperational stage 2-7 years, child uses symbols to represent the world, begins to develop logic that is different than adults, is egocentric and unable to take the perspective of others, lacks conservation,
Piaget's Concrete Operational stage 7-12 years, logical reasoning develops, as long as the problem is in the here and now rather than abstract
Piaget's Formal Operational stage 12-15 years, adolescent improves on logical reasoning and can now solve abstract problems, reasoning is more systematic but also more idealistic
Robbie Case proposed that children have limits on the amount of information they can deal with, but practice makes the skill more proficient and under automatic control, which frees up the mind for new information, proposed development is like a staircase
Lawrence Kohlberg applied a piece of Piaget's theory to the development of moral reasoning and expanded it into a more comprehensive stage theory
Moral reasoning the way people use cognitive processes to solve ethical dilemmas
Kohlberg's Preconventional stage substages, punishment/obedience orientation and individualism and purpose, moral reasoning is determined by external rewards and punishments, children obey because adults tell them to and they fear punishment or because they receive rewards for behaviors
Kohlberg's Conventional Stage substages Interpersonal norms and social system morality, child begins to internalize values and morals, but still behaves in certain ways mainly to please others, near the end of stage understands need for rules to uphold social order, feels duty behave
Kohlberg's Postconventional Stage substage community vs individual rights and universal ethical principles, morality has become completely internalized and does what s/he thinks is right, not what will please others, develop a set of principles that guide their behavior, not bound by rule
Humanistic theories stress that people can take control over their own behavior and are not merely pawns of reinforcement or driven by genetic factors, focus on ways which humans achieve some higher level of existence
Abraham Maslow hierarchy of human needs, proposed that physical needs and emotional needs must be met before that child is ready for academic/cognitive tasks a person who has all of their needs met can become self-actualized
Self-actualized a person who is spontaneous, creative, good at solving problems, and self-directed, and who has good social relationships but also likes privacy, people rarely achieve this state but are constantly striving for it
Carl Rogers developed a humanistic person-centered from of psychotherapy that encourages the therapist to listen closely to the client, reflect back what the client says and allow the client to draw conclusions rather than being advised by the therapist
Urie Bronfenbrenner proposed a theory that focuses on the social environment of the individual
Microsystems structures that impinge on the individual every day, family, school, peers, and close neighbors
Mesosystems looks at how the structures in the microsystem intersect and interact with each other
Exosystems mot quite as close to the individual, extended family, mass media, social welfare agencies, and government
Macrosystems consists of dominant ideology (attitudes and beliefs of a culture reflected in its educational, legal, religious, and governing body practices)
Chronosystem the pattern of events that unfold over chronological age, including the historical and social context
Lev Vygotsky proposed that language directs behavior and that young children first control their behavior by talking out loud to themselves, also proposed zone of proximal development
Zone of proximal development some tasks that are too difficult for children to achieve alone, but they can with the direct assistance of an adult or older peer, lower level encompasses what child can do alone upper level what child can accomplish with help
Created by: tjclpn on 2007-10-15



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