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Vocab for Chapter 3

Myers 7th Edition - Chapter 03 Vocabulary

TERMDEFINITION
Chromosomes Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. (A DNA molecule has two strands - forming a "double helix" - held together by two bonds between pairs of nucleotides.)
Genes The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
Genome The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes. The human genome has 3 billion weakly bonded pairs of nucleotides organized as coiled chains of DNA.
Natural selection The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Mutation A random error in gene replication that leads to change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity.
Evolutionary psychology The study of evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection, which has favored genes that designed both behavioral tendencies and information-processing systems that solved adaptive problems faced by our ancestors.
Gender In psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
Behavior genetics The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Environment Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
Identical twins Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
Fratenal twins Twins who develop from separate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers or sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
Temperament A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Heritability The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of population and environment studied.
Interaction The dependencies of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity).
Molecular genetics The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
Culture The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Norm An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
Personal space The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
Memes Self-replication ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person.
X chromosome The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Y chromosome The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
Testosterone The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the developement of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
Role A set of expectations (norm) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Gender role A set of expected behaviors for males and for females.
Gender identity One's sense of being male or female.
Gender-typing The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
Social learning theory The theory that we learn social behaviors by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Gender schema theory The theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.
Created by: shellenberger on 2006-01-01



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