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Vocab for Chapter 7

Myers 7th Edition - Chapter 07 Vocabulary

TERMDEFINITION
Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our enviroment.
Biological Rhythms Periodic physiological fluctuations.
Circadian The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
REM sleep Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
Alpha waves The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
Sleep Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
Hallucinations False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
Delta waves The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
Insomnia Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
Narcolepsy A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
Sleep apnea A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings.
Night terrors A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
Dream A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discountinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later
Dream (continued) difficulties remembering it.
Manifest content According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent content).
Latent content According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that dream's latent content functions as a safety valve.
REM rebound The tendency for REM sleep to increase REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behavior will spontaneously occur.
Posthypnotic amnesia Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion.
Posthypnotic suggestion A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by clinicians to help control undesired symptomsand behaviors.
Dissociation A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
Hidden observer Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis.
Psychoactive drug A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
Tolerance The diminishing effect with regulare use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
Withdrawal The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
Physical dependence a Physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
Psychological dependence A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
Depressants Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Stimulants Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Hallucinogens Psychedelic ("mind manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
Barbiturates Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement.
Opiates Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
Amphetamines Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
Ectasy (MDMA) A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
LSD A powerful hallucinogens drug: also known as acid (Lysergic acid diethylamide)
THC The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
Near-death experience An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
Dualism The presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.
Monism The presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
Created by: shellenberger on 2005-12-27



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