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Vocab for chapter 10

Myers 7th Edition - Chapter 10 Vocabulary

TERMDEFINITION
Cognition The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concept A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototype A mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
Algorithm A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error-prone - use of heuristics.
Heuristic A simple thinking thinking stratagey that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithims.
Insight A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Confirmation Bias A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
Fixation The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
Mental Set A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem.
Functional Fixedness The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Representativeness Heuristic Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness). We presume such events are common.
Belief Perservence Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) The science of designing and programing computer systems to do intelligent things and to stimulate human thought processes, such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language.
Computer Neural Networks Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells.
Language Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Phoneme In a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morpheme In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
Grammar In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
Semantics The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
Syntax The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
Babbling Stage Beginning at 3 to 4 months, the stage of speech developement in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household langauge.
One-Word stage The stage in speech developement, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two-word Stage Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech developement during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
Telegraphic Speech Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram - "go car" - using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "Auxiliary" words.
Linguistic Determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Created by: shellenberger on 2005-11-30



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