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PSYCHOLOGY

CHAPTER 17 - Social Behavior

QuestionAnswer
social psychology the field that studies how the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other people affects one another's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
social cognition the process of perceiving, interpreting, and predicting social behavior
causal attribution the cognitive process by which we infer the causes of both our own and other people's social behavior
fundmental attribution error the bias to attribute other people's behavior to dispostional factors
self-serving bias the tendency to make dispositional attributions for one's successes and situational attributions for one's failures
person perception the process of making judgements about the personal characteristics of others
impression management the deliberate attempt to control the impression that others form of us
social schema a cognitive structure comprising the presumed characteristics of a rol, an event, a person or a group
stereotype a social schema that incorporates characteristics, which can be positive or negative, supposedly shared by almost all members of a group
self-fulfilling prophecy the tendency for one person's expectations to influence another person to behave in accordance with them
passionate love love characterized by intense emotional arousal and sexual feelings
companionate love love characterized by feelings of affection and commitment to a relationship with another person
attitude an evaluation - containing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components - of an idea, event, object, or person
persuasion the attempt to influence the attitudes of other people.
elaboration likelihood theory a theory of persuasion that considers the extent to which messages take a central route or a peripheral route
sleeper effect responding favorably to a persuasive message following the mere passage of time after having initially rejected it because of a strong peripheral factor, such as not trusting the source of the message
cognitive-dissonance theory leon festinger's theory that attitude change is motivated by the desire to relieve the unpleasant state of arousal caused when one holds cognitons and or behaviors that are inconsistent with each other
self-perception theory the theory that we infer our attitudes from our behavior in the same way that we infer other people's attitudes from their behavior
prejudice a positive or negative attitude toward a person based on his or her membership in a particular group
authoritarian personality a personality type marked by the tendency to obey superiors while dominating subordinates, to favor one's own group while being prejudiced against other groups, and to be willing to admit one's own faults while projecting them onto members of other groups
group a collection of two or more persons who interact and have mutual influence on each other
group polarization the tendency for groups to make more extreme decisions than their members would make as individuals
groupthink the tendency of small, cohesive groups to place unanimity ahead of critical thinking in making decisions
social facilitation the effect of the presence of other people on a person's task performance, with performance on simple or well-learned tasks improved and performance on complex or poorly learned tasks impaired
social loafing a decrease in the individual effort exerted by group members when working together on a task
conformity behaving in accordance with group expectations with little or no overt pressure to do so
compliance behaving in accordance with a request that is backed by little or no threat of punishment
foot-in-the-door technique increasing the likelihood that a person will comply with a request by first getting the person to comply with a smaller one
door-in-the-face technique increasing the likelihood that a person will comply with a request by first getting the person to reject a larger one
obedience following orders given by an authority
aggression verbal or physical behavior aimed at harming another person
frustration-aggression hypothesis the assumption that frustration causes aggression
deindividuation the process by which group members become less aware of themselves as individuals and less concerned about being socially evaluated
prosocial behavior behavior that helps others in need
altruism the helping of others without the expectation of a reward
negative state relief theory the theory that we engage in prosocial behavior to relieve our own state of emotional distress at another's plight
bystander intervention the act of helping someone who is in immediate need of aid
Created by: Jessica C on 2007-04-24



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