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201 FINAL TEST

QuestionAnswer
independent variable the variable in the study that is manipulated by the researcher
dependent variable the variable in the study that is measured by the researcher
control variable manipulating the independent variable in an experiment that could affect the results of the study
confound an uncontrolled extraneous variable or flaw in an experiment
control group the group of participants that does not receive any level of of the independent variable and serves as a baseline in the study
experimental group the group of participants that receives some level of the independent variable
internal validity the extent to which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the I.V. rather than to some confounding variable
time-order relationship demonstrating a cause and effect relationship.
elimination of alternative explanations the difference between the mean is due only to the I.V, anything else represents a threat to the internal validity of the study
posttest-only control group design an experimental design in which the dependent variable is measured after the manipulation of the I.V.
non-equivalent control group a design in which at least two nonequivalent groups are given a pretest, then a treatment, and then a post-test measure
floor effects a limitation of the measuring instrument that decreases its capability to differentiate between scores at the bottom of the scale
ceiling effect a limitation of the measuring instrument that decreases its capability to differentiate between scores at the top of the scale
experimenter effects a threat to internal validity in which the experimenter, consciously or unconsciously, affects the results of the study
participant effect a threat to internal validity in which the participant, consciously or unconsciously, affects the results of the study
placebo control group a group or condition in which participants believe they are receiving treatment but are not
single-blind experiment an experimental procedure in which either the participants or the experimenters are blind to the manipulation being made
double-blind experiment an experimental procedure in which neither the experimenter or participant knows the condition to which each participant has been assigned-both parties are blind to manipulation
external validity the extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized
independent sample t-test a parametric inferential group for comparing sample means of two independent groups of scores
null hypothesis (ho) the hypothesis predicting that no difference exists between the groups being compared
alternative hypothesis (ha) the hypothesis that the researcher wants to support, predicting that a significant difference exists between the groups being compared
generalize to different samples get the same results if you repeat the same study with a different sample (from the same population)- replication
generalize to different populations get the same results if you repeat the same study with a sample from a different population
generalize from different settings get the same results under different conditions
type one error an error in hypothesis testing in which the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true
type two error an error in the hypothesis testing in which there is a failure to reject the null hypothesis when it is false
mean a measure of central tendency; the arithmetic average between groups or variance within groups
standard deviation a measure of variation, the average difference between the scores in the distribution and the mean of the scores or the sq. root of the average squared deviation from the mean
z-score a number that indicates how many standard deviation units a raw scores is from the mean of a distribution
percentile score a score that indicates the percentage of people who scored at or below a given raw score
sample the group of people who participate in a study
population all of the people about whom a study is meant to generalize
third variable problem the problem of a correlation between two variables being dependent on another (the third) variable
construct validity the degree to which a measuring instrument accurately measures a theoretical construct or trait that it is designed to measure
reliability an indication of the consistency or stability of a measuring instrument
internal consistency all the items are measuring the same construct
test-retest reliability a reliability coefficient determined by assessing the degree of relationship between scores on the same test administered on two different occasions
convergent validity the test is strongly correlated with other measures of the same construct
discriminate validity the test is not strongly correlated with tests measuring different constructs
Created by: amac on 2010-05-04



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