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AP Psych Chap 3 HHS

All these things you need to know about the brain and its functions

QuestionAnswer
A brain area associated with movement, the sense of smell, and higher mental functions Front Lobes
The neurotransmitter released by neurons to activate muscles Acetylcholine
Positron emission tomography; a computer-generated image of brain activity based on glucose consumption in the brain PET scan
A branch of the autonomic system responsible for arousing and activating the body at times of stress Sympathetic branch
A hormone produced by the pineal gland in response to cycles of light and dark Melatonin
Brain chemicals that regulate the activity of neurons, thereby influencing memory, emotion, pain, hunger, and other behavior Neuropeptides
An adrenal hormone that tends to arouse the body; associated with fear; also known as adrenaline Epinephrine
An area on the brainstem that acts as a bridge between the medulla and other structures Pons
Branching fibers at the ends of axons Axon terminals
Glands whose secretions pass directly into the blood stream or lymph system Endocrine system
The layer of tissue that forms the outer layer and surface of the cerebrum; responsible for basic sensory and motor functions as well as higher mental processes in humans Cerebral cortex
The two large hemispheres that cover the upper part of the brain Cerebrum
A device designed to detect, amplify, and record electrical activity in the brain Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Use of an electrode to destroy small areas deep within the brain Deep lesioning
All parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered Threshold
Computed tomography scan; a computer enhanced X-ray image of the brain or body CT scan
Magnetic resonance imaging that records brain activity fMRI scan
A hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland, that promotes bodily growth Growth hormone
Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal cord Cranial nerves
An inability to grasp the meaning of stimuli, such as words, objects, or pictures; an inability to recognize familiar faces Agnosia (facial agnosia)
A speech disturbance resulting from brain damage Aphasia
All areas of the cerebral cortex that are not primarily sensory or motor in function Association cortex
The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs and glands Autonomic system
Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron Axon
The brain and spinal cord Central nervous system (CNS)
The bundle of fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum
A branch of the autonomic nervous system that quiets the body Parasympathetic branch
The nerve impulse, which is a rapid change in electrical charge across the cell membrane Action potential
All brain structures below the cerebral cortex Subcortex
A layer of living cells that encases the axons of some neurons Neurilemma
The simplest behavior pattern; involving only three neurons, leads from a stimulus to an autonomic response, such as an eye blink or knee jerk Reflex arc
The electrical charge that exists between the inside and outside of a neuron at rest Resting potential
A part of the reticular formation that activates the cerebral cortex Reticular activating system
Sensory - A nerve cell that carries information from the senses toward the central nervous system Sensory neuron
The system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the body and sense organs Somatic system
The part of the parietal lobes that serves as a receiving area for bodily sensations Somatosensory area
The main body of a neuron or other cell Soma
One of 62 major nerves that channel sensory and motor information in and out of the spinal cord Spinal nerves
Cutting the corpus callosum Split brain
The lowest portions of the brain, including the cerebellum, medulla, and reticular formation Brainstem
Channels through the axon membrane Ion channels
A system of interconnected structures in the forebrain that are closely associated with emotional response Limbic system
The right and left (hemispheres) halves of the cerebrum Cerebral hemispheres
The microscopic space between an axon terminal and another neuron, over which neurotransmitters pass Synapse
Opiate-like brain chemicals that regulate reactions to pain and stress Enkephalins
A nerve cell that serves as a link between two others Connector neuron
Fibers projecting from nerve cells that receive information from other neurons and carry it to the cell body Dendrites
A class of chemicals produced by the pituitary gland that are similar in structure and painkilling effect to opiate drugs such as morphine Endorphins
Any of a number of chemical substances secreted by neurons that alter activity in other neurons Neurotransmitter
Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormones Receptor sites
Individual nerve cells Neuron
A bundle of neuron fibers Nerve
Endocrine glands whose hormones arouse the body, regulate salt balance, adjust the body to stress, and affect sexual functioning Adrenal glands
Endocrine gland whose hormones help regulate metabolism (the production and expenditure of energy within the body) Thyroid gland
A small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion; especially hunger, thirst and sexual behavior Hypothalamus
A structure at the center of the brain that relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex Thalamus
A network of fibers within the medulla associated with attention, alertness, and activation of higher mental processes Reticular formation
The outer layer of the adrenal glands; produce hormones that affect salt intake, reactions to stress, and sexual development Adrenal cortex
The inner core of the adrenal glands; a source of epinephrine and norepinephrine Adrenal medulla
Cells and muscles and glands specialized for the production of responses Effector cells
Area at the top of the brain that includes sites where bodily sensations register in the brain Parietal lobes
The master gland at the base of the brain whose hormones influence the output of other endocrine glands Pituitary gland
A nerve cell that carries motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands Motor neuron
Magnetic resonance imaging; a computer-enhanced three-dimensional representation of the brain or body based on the body's response to a magnetic field MRI scan
A fatty layer coating some axons Myelin
A drop in electrical charge below the resting potential Negative after-potential
A glandular secretion that affects bodily functions or behavior Hormone
Created by: katydee on 2009-11-17



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