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Muscular System

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Question
Answer
what forms a movement   muscles and bones together  
movementwhat determines movement   where the muscle attatches and type of joint  
what are the three types of muscular tissue   smooth, skeletal, cardiac  
what type of muscle is striated, voluntary, and has limited regenerative properties   skeletal  
what type of muscle is striated, involuntary, and has some regenerative properties   cardiac  
What type of muscle is non-striated, involuntary, and has the best chance for regeneration   smooth  
what are the functions of muscular tissue   producing body movements, stabilizing body positions, regulating organ volume, moving substances in the body, and producing heat  
what are the two types of connective tissue that hold muscle together   superficial fascia, deep fascia  
what wraps around the entire muscle   epimysium  
what are muscle fibers called   fasciles  
what surrounds 10-100 bundles of fasciles   perimysium  
what wraps an individual muscle fiber   endomysium  
what forms our tendons   epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium  
what is histology   how do muscles work  
what is a sarcomere   the basic functional unit of striated muscle  
what gives us energy for muscle contractions   creatine phosphate, glycolosis, aerobic cellular respiration  
what do we do at rest?   build up ATP in the form of creatine phosphate  
what is needed for quick energy in short bursts   phosphate transfer from ADP to make ATP  
when does creatine contribute significantly to ATP replenishment   first few seconds of intense activity  
how much creatine does an adult need   2 grams a day  
what does ingesting creatine supplements do   slows the bodies production of some molecules  
what is our first energy source   creatine phosphate  
what is our second energy source   glycolosis  
what does glycolisis do   makes 2 ATP by breaking down a glucose molecule to pyruvic acid  
is glycolosis aerobic or anaerobic   anaerobic in the sarcoplasm  
how long does glycolosis energy last   about 1 minute  
what is our third source of energy   cellular respiration  
is cellular aerobic or anaerobic   aerobic in mitochondria  
what is the source of the oxygen needed for cellular respiration   blood and myoglobin  
what does myoglobin do   grabs O2 when it is abundant, releases it when its scarce  
where is myoglobin an O2 binder   in muscle cells  
how many ATPs does glycolosis provide   2  
how many ATPs does cellular respiration provide   36 for each glucose  
what type of energy is used for sustained excersice   cellular respiration  
what happens when O2 is low   fermentation (anaerobic) occurs  
what does fermentation do   converts pyruvic acid to lactic acid  
what happens during muscle fatigue   lowered release of Ca2+, keeps pH where it should be  
what is oxygen needed for   convert lactic acid back to glycogen, make creatine phosphate, refill myoglobin  
what provides the total tension of muscle   the number of fibers involved  
what encompases a twitch contraction   latent period, contraction period, relaxation period  
when does the latent period occur   between muscle stimulus  
what happens during the latent period   calcium is being released and the myosin heads start to bind to actin  
what happens during the contraction period   repetitive power strokes occur increasing tension and force  
what happens during the relaxation period   calcium ion is reducing and being returned to the sarcoplasm  
what stimulation is the strongest   the 2nd stimulation is stronger then the first, and so on (called wave summation)  
what happens during unfused tenatus   lots of calcium ion is being released from sarcoplasm, making the waves more level, and no relaxation, can lead to muscle cramps  
how many stimuli/second constitute fused tenatus   90  
what happens during motor unit recruitment   neurons fire asynchronoly (at different times), some relaxing, some contracting, all smooth  
what are precise movements controlled by   small motor units  
what are the three types of skeletal muscle   slow oxidative fibers (SO), fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers (FOG), fast glycolitic fibers (FG)  
what type of skeletal muscle is small, dark, has lots of myoglobin and mitochondria, makes ATP aerobically, has slow contractors, and is hard to fatigue   Slow oxidative fibers (SO)  
what type of skeletal muscle is intermediate in size, has lots of myoglobin, makes ATP aerobically, and has a moderate fatigue rate   fast oxidative glycolitic fibers (FOG)  
what type of skeletal muscle is white, large, generates the most powerful rapid contractions, has little myoglobin, few mitochondria, large amounts of glycogen, short quick movements, and fatigues the quickest   fast glycolitic fibers (FG)  
how many fibers in a muscle group are slow oxidative   about half  
what muscular groups have lots of slow oxidative muscles   postural muscles  
what type of muscles are fast glycolitic   muscles we use alot  
what types of skeletal muscles are in our legs   slow oxidative and fast oxidative glycolitic  
what happens during and isometric contraction   no change in muscle length during contraction but lots of tension generated; no movement  
what happens during an isotonic contracion   change in muscle length, movement  
are most movements generally isometric or isotonic   generally both  
what determines the ratio of fast to slow twitch muscle fibers   genetics  
who has a higher ratio of FG/SO   sprinters, weight lifters  
who has a higher ratio of SO/FG   endurance athletes  
what does strength training do   increases fiber size and thickness of the thin and thick filaments  
what do anabolic steroids do   increase muscle fiber strength and size, but damage the liver, heart and kidney, cause mood swings, testicle atrophy, and baldness  
what do steroids do in females   cause breast and uterus reduction, menstrual irregularities, sterility, facial hair, and deep voice  
what are the features of cardiac muscle   shorter then skeletal muscle, branched and large in diameter, single nucleus, intercalated disks for communication  
what do intercalated disks do   hold fibers together, gap junctions allow for fast nerve conduction  
why do skeletal muscles twitch   because of a nerve impulse and release of acetylcholine  
why do hearts beat   because of an internal pace maker  
what is autorhythmicity   built in or intrinsic beat, needs lots of CO2 and mitochondria, and uses lactic acid to make ATP  
what is a persons average beats per minute   75  
where is smooth muscle tissue found   internal organs and blood vessels  
what are the features of smooth muscle tissue   involuntary, small tapered, one nuclei  
what does smooth muscle contain   intermediate filaments that overlap to appear striated  
what are the two types of smooth muscle   visceral and multiunit  
where is visceral smooth muscle found   in sheets in the small arteries, and hollow organs  
where is multiunit smooth muscle found   large arteries and the lungs,  
what are the features of multiunit smooth muscle   stays in constant contraction, can stretch and return  
what happens to skeletal muscle as we age   its mass is replaced with adipose tissue  
what do tendons do   attatch muscle to bone  
what do muscles cross   joints  
what do muscles do in terms of bones   draw one bone to the other  
where is the origin of a muscle   attatched to the bone that does not move  
where is the muscle insertion   attatched to the movable bone  
where is the muscle belly   bulging part of the muscle  
what occurs during tendonitis   fluid accumulation from repetitive movements  
what are prime movers/agonists   muscle that causes the motion  
what is the antagonist   muscle that relaxes when the prime mover flexes  
what do synergists do   increase efficiency by reducing unnecessary moves  
what do fixators do   stabilize joints  
what is the neuromuscular junction   synapse between a motor neuron's axon terminal and motor end plate of a muscle fiber  
what is the motor end plate   region of the sarcolemma near the axon terminal  
what happens in the neuromuscular junction   acetocholine binds to ion channels, opens them, sodium flows in, this causes action potential  
what happens to muscle action potential   it travels down transverse tubules of muscle fiber  
what are transverse tubules   inward folds of the sarcolema  


   






 
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