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Muscular System

what forms a movement muscles and bones together
movementwhat determines movement where the muscle attatches and type of joint
what are the three types of muscular tissue smooth, skeletal, cardiac
what type of muscle is striated, voluntary, and has limited regenerative properties skeletal
what type of muscle is striated, involuntary, and has some regenerative properties cardiac
What type of muscle is non-striated, involuntary, and has the best chance for regeneration smooth
what are the functions of muscular tissue producing body movements, stabilizing body positions, regulating organ volume, moving substances in the body, and producing heat
what are the two types of connective tissue that hold muscle together superficial fascia, deep fascia
what wraps around the entire muscle epimysium
what are muscle fibers called fasciles
what surrounds 10-100 bundles of fasciles perimysium
what wraps an individual muscle fiber endomysium
what forms our tendons epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium
what is histology how do muscles work
what is a sarcomere the basic functional unit of striated muscle
what gives us energy for muscle contractions creatine phosphate, glycolosis, aerobic cellular respiration
what do we do at rest? build up ATP in the form of creatine phosphate
what is needed for quick energy in short bursts phosphate transfer from ADP to make ATP
when does creatine contribute significantly to ATP replenishment first few seconds of intense activity
how much creatine does an adult need 2 grams a day
what does ingesting creatine supplements do slows the bodies production of some molecules
what is our first energy source creatine phosphate
what is our second energy source glycolosis
what does glycolisis do makes 2 ATP by breaking down a glucose molecule to pyruvic acid
is glycolosis aerobic or anaerobic anaerobic in the sarcoplasm
how long does glycolosis energy last about 1 minute
what is our third source of energy cellular respiration
is cellular aerobic or anaerobic aerobic in mitochondria
what is the source of the oxygen needed for cellular respiration blood and myoglobin
what does myoglobin do grabs O2 when it is abundant, releases it when its scarce
where is myoglobin an O2 binder in muscle cells
how many ATPs does glycolosis provide 2
how many ATPs does cellular respiration provide 36 for each glucose
what type of energy is used for sustained excersice cellular respiration
what happens when O2 is low fermentation (anaerobic) occurs
what does fermentation do converts pyruvic acid to lactic acid
what happens during muscle fatigue lowered release of Ca2+, keeps pH where it should be
what is oxygen needed for convert lactic acid back to glycogen, make creatine phosphate, refill myoglobin
what provides the total tension of muscle the number of fibers involved
what encompases a twitch contraction latent period, contraction period, relaxation period
when does the latent period occur between muscle stimulus
what happens during the latent period calcium is being released and the myosin heads start to bind to actin
what happens during the contraction period repetitive power strokes occur increasing tension and force
what happens during the relaxation period calcium ion is reducing and being returned to the sarcoplasm
what stimulation is the strongest the 2nd stimulation is stronger then the first, and so on (called wave summation)
what happens during unfused tenatus lots of calcium ion is being released from sarcoplasm, making the waves more level, and no relaxation, can lead to muscle cramps
how many stimuli/second constitute fused tenatus 90
what happens during motor unit recruitment neurons fire asynchronoly (at different times), some relaxing, some contracting, all smooth
what are precise movements controlled by small motor units
what are the three types of skeletal muscle slow oxidative fibers (SO), fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers (FOG), fast glycolitic fibers (FG)
what type of skeletal muscle is small, dark, has lots of myoglobin and mitochondria, makes ATP aerobically, has slow contractors, and is hard to fatigue Slow oxidative fibers (SO)
what type of skeletal muscle is intermediate in size, has lots of myoglobin, makes ATP aerobically, and has a moderate fatigue rate fast oxidative glycolitic fibers (FOG)
what type of skeletal muscle is white, large, generates the most powerful rapid contractions, has little myoglobin, few mitochondria, large amounts of glycogen, short quick movements, and fatigues the quickest fast glycolitic fibers (FG)
how many fibers in a muscle group are slow oxidative about half
what muscular groups have lots of slow oxidative muscles postural muscles
what type of muscles are fast glycolitic muscles we use alot
what types of skeletal muscles are in our legs slow oxidative and fast oxidative glycolitic
what happens during and isometric contraction no change in muscle length during contraction but lots of tension generated; no movement
what happens during an isotonic contracion change in muscle length, movement
are most movements generally isometric or isotonic generally both
what determines the ratio of fast to slow twitch muscle fibers genetics
who has a higher ratio of FG/SO sprinters, weight lifters
who has a higher ratio of SO/FG endurance athletes
what does strength training do increases fiber size and thickness of the thin and thick filaments
what do anabolic steroids do increase muscle fiber strength and size, but damage the liver, heart and kidney, cause mood swings, testicle atrophy, and baldness
what do steroids do in females cause breast and uterus reduction, menstrual irregularities, sterility, facial hair, and deep voice
what are the features of cardiac muscle shorter then skeletal muscle, branched and large in diameter, single nucleus, intercalated disks for communication
what do intercalated disks do hold fibers together, gap junctions allow for fast nerve conduction
why do skeletal muscles twitch because of a nerve impulse and release of acetylcholine
why do hearts beat because of an internal pace maker
what is autorhythmicity built in or intrinsic beat, needs lots of CO2 and mitochondria, and uses lactic acid to make ATP
what is a persons average beats per minute 75
where is smooth muscle tissue found internal organs and blood vessels
what are the features of smooth muscle tissue involuntary, small tapered, one nuclei
what does smooth muscle contain intermediate filaments that overlap to appear striated
what are the two types of smooth muscle visceral and multiunit
where is visceral smooth muscle found in sheets in the small arteries, and hollow organs
where is multiunit smooth muscle found large arteries and the lungs,
what are the features of multiunit smooth muscle stays in constant contraction, can stretch and return
what happens to skeletal muscle as we age its mass is replaced with adipose tissue
what do tendons do attatch muscle to bone
what do muscles cross joints
what do muscles do in terms of bones draw one bone to the other
where is the origin of a muscle attatched to the bone that does not move
where is the muscle insertion attatched to the movable bone
where is the muscle belly bulging part of the muscle
what occurs during tendonitis fluid accumulation from repetitive movements
what are prime movers/agonists muscle that causes the motion
what is the antagonist muscle that relaxes when the prime mover flexes
what do synergists do increase efficiency by reducing unnecessary moves
what do fixators do stabilize joints
what is the neuromuscular junction synapse between a motor neuron's axon terminal and motor end plate of a muscle fiber
what is the motor end plate region of the sarcolemma near the axon terminal
what happens in the neuromuscular junction acetocholine binds to ion channels, opens them, sodium flows in, this causes action potential
what happens to muscle action potential it travels down transverse tubules of muscle fiber
what are transverse tubules inward folds of the sarcolema
Created by: flips446