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Study guide for science bee.

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Plant cells and animal cells   nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), Golgi apparatus, ribosome, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, mitochondrion, cytoskeleton  
Animal cells   centriole, lysosomes, vesicles  
Plant cells   chloroplasts, central vacuole, cell wall  
Centrioles   micro-tubules that assist in cell division, are organized in 9 triplets  
Gene   functional unit controlling inherited trait expressions  
Protein Synthesis   Transcription and translation  
Transcription   DNA polymerase unwinds DNA and binds to promoter region (TATAA sequence), RNA polymerase creates newly synthesized strand of mRNA, introns are removed from strand, 5 carbon end has protective cap, 3 carbon end has poly-A tail  
Translation   mRNA moves to ribosome, tRNA is activated by special enzyme, tRNA uses anti-codons to read codons and code for an amino acid from mRNA sequence, tRNA reaches a stop codon and releases the newly made amino acid sequence  
DNA/RNA   DNA is double stranded, RNA is single stranded, DNA has thymine base, RNA has uracil base, DNA has deoxyribose sugar, RNA has ribose sugar  
Light/Electron Microscopes   light uses a series of lenses, electron uses magnets with a beam of electrons, light can show live specimens in color, electrons can only show dead specimens in black and white  
Vascular tissues   specialized internal tubes that conduct water/minerals/sugars  
Leaf Structure   upper epidermis, palisade layer (where chloroplasts are), spongy layer, lower epidermis  
Monocots   single cotyledon, parallel veins in leaf, flower parts in multiples of 3  
Dicots   2 cotyledons, feather-like veins in leaf, flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5  
Light Reaction   consists of photosystems, electron transport chains, ATP synthase, functions to make energy carrier molecules for second stage, requires water and light  
Calvin Cycle   starts with carbon dioxide combining with RuBp, turns into 3-phosphoglycerate, uses energy carrier molecules to turn this into glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P), 2 of which make glucose, the rest used to make RuBp with rubisco enzyme to continue cycle  
Photoperiods   flowering response of a plant based on number of hours of darkness received  
Tropisms   plant's growth response to external stimulus, phototropism, gravitropism, thigmotropism  
Lytic Cycle   virus enters host cell and injects genetic material, host cell replicates viral DNA, genes code for parts of a virus, new viruses are assembled, lytic cycle produces immediate infections such as common cold, flu  
Lysogenic Cycle   viral DNA enters host cell's nucleus and becomes part of chromosomes, viral DNA stays dormant for a while and is permanent, genes are activated and virus parts are assembled and made into new viruses, produces latent infections such as HIV/AIDS, herpes  
Plant hormones   auxin, gibberellins, cytokinin, ethylene  
Auxin   stimulates elongation of plant cells by promoting flow of H+ ions into cell wall and out of cytoplasm, this weakens cell wall and expands cytoplasm by water influx, auxin inhibits growth of side branches/leaves, favors vertical growth  
Gibberellins   mainly causes a plant to grow taller, it is transported by vascular tissues, is not present in all plants, only present in tall plants  
Ethylene   gaseous hormone that causes ripening of fruits, works by weakening cell walls of plant cells and breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars creating softer, sweeter fruits, is transported by the phloem  
Cytokinin   promotes cell division with proteins needed for mitosis and cytokinesis  
bacteria/eubacteria   cell walls made of peptidoglycan, some have second cell wall, others are photosynthetic bacteria  
archaeabacteria   live in hostile environments (e.g. high salt concentration, high temperatures, etc.)  
anaerobes   organisms that can live without oxygen  
halophiles   live in high salt concentrations  
methanogens   must live without oxygen, use carbon dioxide for respiration and emit methane  
Bacteria/Archaea   different lipids in plasma membrane, archaea have ribosomal proteins similar to eukaryotic cells, bacteria have peptidoglycan in cell walls  
Benefits of Bacteria   used to make foods such as yogurt, cheese, chocolate, buttermilk, pickles, normal flora thrive in normal human beings to protect against many other ailments, recycle nutrients, nitrogen fixation cycle, defense in the body  
Disease Causing Bacteria   botulism, tooth cavities, cholera, strep throat, anthrax, tuberculosis, whooping cough, tetanus, typhoid fever, Lyme disease, etc.  
Sponge Characteristics   no tissues/organs, no symmetry, have one body opening, 2 cell layers, when broken in 2 pieces, 2 new organisms will form, use filter feeders to get food, can reproduce asexually or sexually, most are hermaphrodites  
Sponge Examples   desmosponge, glass sponge, calcareous sponge  
Cnidarian Characteristics   2 cell layers, one body opening, have tissues, tentacles, and symmetry, tentacle cells called cnidocytes use nematocyst capsules to capture prey, gastrovascular cavity digests prey, has a nervous system with a nerve net that conducts impulses  
Cnidarian Examples   jellyfish, sea anemone  
Flatworm Characteristics   thin/flat shaped body, definite head region, uses pharynx to capture slow moving prey, digests food with enzymes, cells use diffusion to move oxygen and nutrients around the body, use regeneration, and are hermaphrodites  
Flatworm Examples   tapeworm, fluke  
Roundworm Characteristics   fluid filled body cavities, use diffusion for oxygen and nutrients, act as decomposers, predators, or parasites, have muscles that allow thrashing movements, reproduce sexually but are not hermaphrodites  
Roundworm Examples   trichinella worms  
Mollusk Characteristics   complex tissues/organs, muscles, mantle membrane encloses internal organs, radula is tongue-like organ with teeth, scrapes food in mouth, uses gills in respiration, circulatory system, nephridia gets rid of wastes by filtering, sexual reproduction  
Mollusk Examples   octopus, nudibranch, snails, clams  
Segmented Worm (annelids) Characteristics   2 body openings, bodies divided, rigid body is skeleton, digestion: pharynx, crop, gizzard, intestine, anus, closed circulatory, response to stimuli, contraction of circle muscles around segments, reproduce asexually/sexually (few are hermaphrodites)  
Segmented Worm (annelids) Examples   earthworms, parasitic leech, marine worms  
Arthropod Characteristics   exoskeletons with jointed appendages, molting, head, sometimes cephalothorax, thorax, abdomen, mandibles for digestions, book lungs, tracheal tubes, or gills, Malphigian tubules remove waste and preserve water, response to stimuli, reproduce sexually  
Arthropod Examples   spiders, beetles, butterflies, crustaceans  
Echinoderm Characteristics   endoskeletons, tube feet which are used for respiration, pedicellariae are pincers used to catch food, radial/bilateral symmetry, water vascular system: fluid filled tubes used for movement/food, sensory + motor neurons, regeneration, sexual reproduction  
Echinoderm Examples   sea stars, sea urchins, sea lilies, feather stars, sea cucumbers  
Protists   plantlike, animal-like, fungus-like, all in Domain Eukarya  
Plantlike Protists   algae and euglenoids, autotrophs (perform photosynthesis), e.g. kelp  
Animal-like Protists   protozoans that are heterotrophs, e.g. amoeba, paramecium  
Fungus-like Protists   slime molds, mildew  
Definition of Fungus   uni/multi-cellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in its environment, heterotrophic, lack motility, have cell walls composed of chitin, hyphae filaments separated by septa cross walls  
Types of Fungi   saprophytic, parasitic, mutualistic  
Saprophytic Fungi   decomposers and recycle nutrients from dead organisms  
Parasitic Fungi   absorb nutrients from living cells of a host, produce hyphae called haustoria to absorb host's nutrients  
Mutualistic Fungi   exist with a mutualistic relationship with another organism, such as plant/alga  
Lichens   symbiotic relationship between fungus and algae or another photosynthetic partner  


   






 
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