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NSF Science

Study guide for science bee.

Plant cells and animal cells nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth), Golgi apparatus, ribosome, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, mitochondrion, cytoskeleton
Animal cells centriole, lysosomes, vesicles
Plant cells chloroplasts, central vacuole, cell wall
Centrioles micro-tubules that assist in cell division, are organized in 9 triplets
Gene functional unit controlling inherited trait expressions
Protein Synthesis Transcription and translation
Transcription DNA polymerase unwinds DNA and binds to promoter region (TATAA sequence), RNA polymerase creates newly synthesized strand of mRNA, introns are removed from strand, 5 carbon end has protective cap, 3 carbon end has poly-A tail
Translation mRNA moves to ribosome, tRNA is activated by special enzyme, tRNA uses anti-codons to read codons and code for an amino acid from mRNA sequence, tRNA reaches a stop codon and releases the newly made amino acid sequence
DNA/RNA DNA is double stranded, RNA is single stranded, DNA has thymine base, RNA has uracil base, DNA has deoxyribose sugar, RNA has ribose sugar
Light/Electron Microscopes light uses a series of lenses, electron uses magnets with a beam of electrons, light can show live specimens in color, electrons can only show dead specimens in black and white
Vascular tissues specialized internal tubes that conduct water/minerals/sugars
Leaf Structure upper epidermis, palisade layer (where chloroplasts are), spongy layer, lower epidermis
Monocots single cotyledon, parallel veins in leaf, flower parts in multiples of 3
Dicots 2 cotyledons, feather-like veins in leaf, flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5
Light Reaction consists of photosystems, electron transport chains, ATP synthase, functions to make energy carrier molecules for second stage, requires water and light
Calvin Cycle starts with carbon dioxide combining with RuBp, turns into 3-phosphoglycerate, uses energy carrier molecules to turn this into glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P), 2 of which make glucose, the rest used to make RuBp with rubisco enzyme to continue cycle
Photoperiods flowering response of a plant based on number of hours of darkness received
Tropisms plant's growth response to external stimulus, phototropism, gravitropism, thigmotropism
Lytic Cycle virus enters host cell and injects genetic material, host cell replicates viral DNA, genes code for parts of a virus, new viruses are assembled, lytic cycle produces immediate infections such as common cold, flu
Lysogenic Cycle viral DNA enters host cell's nucleus and becomes part of chromosomes, viral DNA stays dormant for a while and is permanent, genes are activated and virus parts are assembled and made into new viruses, produces latent infections such as HIV/AIDS, herpes
Plant hormones auxin, gibberellins, cytokinin, ethylene
Auxin stimulates elongation of plant cells by promoting flow of H+ ions into cell wall and out of cytoplasm, this weakens cell wall and expands cytoplasm by water influx, auxin inhibits growth of side branches/leaves, favors vertical growth
Gibberellins mainly causes a plant to grow taller, it is transported by vascular tissues, is not present in all plants, only present in tall plants
Ethylene gaseous hormone that causes ripening of fruits, works by weakening cell walls of plant cells and breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars creating softer, sweeter fruits, is transported by the phloem
Cytokinin promotes cell division with proteins needed for mitosis and cytokinesis
bacteria/eubacteria cell walls made of peptidoglycan, some have second cell wall, others are photosynthetic bacteria
archaeabacteria live in hostile environments (e.g. high salt concentration, high temperatures, etc.)
anaerobes organisms that can live without oxygen
halophiles live in high salt concentrations
methanogens must live without oxygen, use carbon dioxide for respiration and emit methane
Bacteria/Archaea different lipids in plasma membrane, archaea have ribosomal proteins similar to eukaryotic cells, bacteria have peptidoglycan in cell walls
Benefits of Bacteria used to make foods such as yogurt, cheese, chocolate, buttermilk, pickles, normal flora thrive in normal human beings to protect against many other ailments, recycle nutrients, nitrogen fixation cycle, defense in the body
Disease Causing Bacteria botulism, tooth cavities, cholera, strep throat, anthrax, tuberculosis, whooping cough, tetanus, typhoid fever, Lyme disease, etc.
Sponge Characteristics no tissues/organs, no symmetry, have one body opening, 2 cell layers, when broken in 2 pieces, 2 new organisms will form, use filter feeders to get food, can reproduce asexually or sexually, most are hermaphrodites
Sponge Examples desmosponge, glass sponge, calcareous sponge
Cnidarian Characteristics 2 cell layers, one body opening, have tissues, tentacles, and symmetry, tentacle cells called cnidocytes use nematocyst capsules to capture prey, gastrovascular cavity digests prey, has a nervous system with a nerve net that conducts impulses
Cnidarian Examples jellyfish, sea anemone
Flatworm Characteristics thin/flat shaped body, definite head region, uses pharynx to capture slow moving prey, digests food with enzymes, cells use diffusion to move oxygen and nutrients around the body, use regeneration, and are hermaphrodites
Flatworm Examples tapeworm, fluke
Roundworm Characteristics fluid filled body cavities, use diffusion for oxygen and nutrients, act as decomposers, predators, or parasites, have muscles that allow thrashing movements, reproduce sexually but are not hermaphrodites
Roundworm Examples trichinella worms
Mollusk Characteristics complex tissues/organs, muscles, mantle membrane encloses internal organs, radula is tongue-like organ with teeth, scrapes food in mouth, uses gills in respiration, circulatory system, nephridia gets rid of wastes by filtering, sexual reproduction
Mollusk Examples octopus, nudibranch, snails, clams
Segmented Worm (annelids) Characteristics 2 body openings, bodies divided, rigid body is skeleton, digestion: pharynx, crop, gizzard, intestine, anus, closed circulatory, response to stimuli, contraction of circle muscles around segments, reproduce asexually/sexually (few are hermaphrodites)
Segmented Worm (annelids) Examples earthworms, parasitic leech, marine worms
Arthropod Characteristics exoskeletons with jointed appendages, molting, head, sometimes cephalothorax, thorax, abdomen, mandibles for digestions, book lungs, tracheal tubes, or gills, Malphigian tubules remove waste and preserve water, response to stimuli, reproduce sexually
Arthropod Examples spiders, beetles, butterflies, crustaceans
Echinoderm Characteristics endoskeletons, tube feet which are used for respiration, pedicellariae are pincers used to catch food, radial/bilateral symmetry, water vascular system: fluid filled tubes used for movement/food, sensory + motor neurons, regeneration, sexual reproduction
Echinoderm Examples sea stars, sea urchins, sea lilies, feather stars, sea cucumbers
Protists plantlike, animal-like, fungus-like, all in Domain Eukarya
Plantlike Protists algae and euglenoids, autotrophs (perform photosynthesis), e.g. kelp
Animal-like Protists protozoans that are heterotrophs, e.g. amoeba, paramecium
Fungus-like Protists slime molds, mildew
Definition of Fungus uni/multi-cellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in its environment, heterotrophic, lack motility, have cell walls composed of chitin, hyphae filaments separated by septa cross walls
Types of Fungi saprophytic, parasitic, mutualistic
Saprophytic Fungi decomposers and recycle nutrients from dead organisms
Parasitic Fungi absorb nutrients from living cells of a host, produce hyphae called haustoria to absorb host's nutrients
Mutualistic Fungi exist with a mutualistic relationship with another organism, such as plant/alga
Lichens symbiotic relationship between fungus and algae or another photosynthetic partner
Created by: Lotus!