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Chapter 26

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Phylogeny   evolutionary history of a species or group of related species  
discipline of systematics   classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships  
Taxonomy   ordered division and naming of organisms  
binomial   The two-part scientific name of a species  
taxon   A taxonomic unit at any level of hierarchy  
phylogenetic trees   Systematists depict evolutionary relationships in branching  
branch point   represents the divergence of two species  
Sister taxa   groups that share an immediate common ancestor  
rooted tree   includes a branch to represent the last common ancestor of all taxa in the tree  
basal taxon   diverges early in the history of a group and originates near the common ancestor of the group  
polytomy   branch from which more than two groups emerge  
Homology   similarity due to shared ancestry  
Analogy   similarity due to convergent evolution  
homoplasies   Analogous structures or molecular sequences that evolved independently  
Molecular systematics   uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships  
Cladistics   groups organisms by common descent  
clade   group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants  
monophyletic   valid clade; signifying that it consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants  
paraphyletic   consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants  
polyphyletic   consists of various species with different ancestors  
shared ancestral character   a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon  
shared derived character   an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade  
outgroup   a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup; a group that has diverged before the ingroup  
ingroup   the various species being studied  
Maximum parsimony   assumes that the tree that requires the fewest evolutionary events (appearances of shared derived characters) is the most likely  
maximum likelihood   certain rules about how DNA changes over time, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events  
Orthologous genes   found in a single copy in the genome and are homologous between species  
Paralogous genes   result from gene duplication, so are found in more than one copy in the genome  
molecular clock   uses constant rates of evolution in some genes to estimate the absolute time of evolutionary change  
Neutral theory   states that much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and is not influenced by natural selection  
Horizontal gene transfer   the movement of genes from one genome to another  


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Created by: danat214