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JC: Shaping the crust

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Term
Definition
Core   Centre of the Earth. It is the hottest part.  
Mantle   Lies under the crust. Is made of molten / semi molten rock called magma.  
Crust   Outer layer of the earth. It is made of solid rock.  
Plate   The crust is broken into sections called plates.  
Boundary   The point where each plate meets.  
Convection Currents   Circular movement of magma formed from the heat of the core. They are found in the mantle and cause the plates to move.  
Continental Drift   The movement of plates due to convection currents.  
Destructive Boundary   Plates that collide with each other. These cause fold mountains, volcanic mountains and earthquakes.  
Constructive Boundary   Plates that separate. These cause volcanic activity that results in volcanic mountains, volcanic islands and mid ocean ridges.  
Passive Boundary   Plates slide past each other. These cause earthquake activity which results in earthquakes and fault lines.  
Molten Rock   Melted rock.  
Magma   Molten / semi molten rock.  
Pacific Ring of Fire   The edge of the Pacific Plate. A lot of volcanic activity occurs here.  
Mid Ocean Ridge   Formed when two plates separate. e.g Mid Atlantic Ridge  
Vent   Narrow tube in the Earths crust.  
Crater   The top of the volcanic mountain from which lava flows.  
Magma Chamber   Magma rises up to form a magma chamber in the mantle.  
Active Volcano   These volcanoes erupt regularly e.g. Mt Etna in Sicily  
Dormant Volcano   These volcanoes have not erupted for a long time, but may erupt again. e.g. Mt Vesuvius in Italy  
Extinct Volcano   These volcanoes have not erupted in recorded history e.g Slemish Co Antrim  
Geyser   A natural hot spring that boils and lets out a large burst of water and steam from time to time.  
Tremor   Vibration in the earths crust.  
Faultline   A crack in the ground that occurs when the Earth's tectonic plates move or shift and are areas where earthquakes are likely to occur.  
Focus   The point beneath the Earths surface where the earthquake happens.  
Epicentre   The point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus.Tremors are strongest here.  
Seismograph   An instrument that measures the tremors in the Earths crust.  
Seismologist   A person who studies earthquakes.  
Richter Scale   Used to show the strength of an earthquake. The scale ranges from 1 to 12.  
Tsunami   A huge wave caused when an earthquake occurs under the sea.  
Fold Mountain   Form when two plates collide with each other.  
Anticline   An upfold / top of the mountain.  
Syncline   A downfold / valley.  


   


 
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