JC: Shaping the crust
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Centre of the Earth. It is the hottest part.
Lies under the crust. Is made of molten / semi molten rock called magma.
Outer layer of the earth. It is made of solid rock.
The crust is broken into sections called plates.
The point where each plate meets.
Circular movement of magma formed from the heat of the core. They are found in the mantle and cause the plates to move.
The movement of plates due to convection currents.
Plates that collide with each other. These cause fold mountains, volcanic mountains and earthquakes.
Plates that separate. These cause volcanic activity that results in volcanic mountains, volcanic islands and mid ocean ridges.
Plates slide past each other. These cause earthquake activity which results in earthquakes and fault lines.
Molten / semi molten rock.
Pacific Ring of Fire
The edge of the Pacific Plate. A lot of volcanic activity occurs here.
Mid Ocean Ridge
Formed when two plates separate. e.g Mid Atlantic Ridge
Narrow tube in the Earths crust.
The top of the volcanic mountain from which lava flows.
Magma rises up to form a magma chamber in the mantle.
These volcanoes erupt regularly e.g. Mt Etna in Sicily
These volcanoes have not erupted for a long time, but may erupt again. e.g. Mt Vesuvius in Italy
These volcanoes have not erupted in recorded history e.g Slemish Co Antrim
A natural hot spring that boils and lets out a large burst of water and steam from time to time.
Vibration in the earths crust.
A crack in the ground that occurs when the Earth's tectonic plates move or shift and are areas where earthquakes are likely to occur.
The point beneath the Earths surface where the earthquake happens.
The point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus.Tremors are strongest here.
An instrument that measures the tremors in the Earths crust.
A person who studies earthquakes.
Used to show the strength of an earthquake. The scale ranges from 1 to 12.
A huge wave caused when an earthquake occurs under the sea.
Form when two plates collide with each other.
An upfold / top of the mountain.
A downfold / valley.