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The Earths Surface

JC: Shaping the crust

Core Centre of the Earth. It is the hottest part.
Mantle Lies under the crust. Is made of molten / semi molten rock called magma.
Crust Outer layer of the earth. It is made of solid rock.
Plate The crust is broken into sections called plates.
Boundary The point where each plate meets.
Convection Currents Circular movement of magma formed from the heat of the core. They are found in the mantle and cause the plates to move.
Continental Drift The movement of plates due to convection currents.
Destructive Boundary Plates that collide with each other. These cause fold mountains, volcanic mountains and earthquakes.
Constructive Boundary Plates that separate. These cause volcanic activity that results in volcanic mountains, volcanic islands and mid ocean ridges.
Passive Boundary Plates slide past each other. These cause earthquake activity which results in earthquakes and fault lines.
Molten Rock Melted rock.
Magma Molten / semi molten rock.
Pacific Ring of Fire The edge of the Pacific Plate. A lot of volcanic activity occurs here.
Mid Ocean Ridge Formed when two plates separate. e.g Mid Atlantic Ridge
Vent Narrow tube in the Earths crust.
Crater The top of the volcanic mountain from which lava flows.
Magma Chamber Magma rises up to form a magma chamber in the mantle.
Active Volcano These volcanoes erupt regularly e.g. Mt Etna in Sicily
Dormant Volcano These volcanoes have not erupted for a long time, but may erupt again. e.g. Mt Vesuvius in Italy
Extinct Volcano These volcanoes have not erupted in recorded history e.g Slemish Co Antrim
Geyser A natural hot spring that boils and lets out a large burst of water and steam from time to time.
Tremor Vibration in the earths crust.
Faultline A crack in the ground that occurs when the Earth's tectonic plates move or shift and are areas where earthquakes are likely to occur.
Focus The point beneath the Earths surface where the earthquake happens.
Epicentre The point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus.Tremors are strongest here.
Seismograph An instrument that measures the tremors in the Earths crust.
Seismologist A person who studies earthquakes.
Richter Scale Used to show the strength of an earthquake. The scale ranges from 1 to 12.
Tsunami A huge wave caused when an earthquake occurs under the sea.
Fold Mountain Form when two plates collide with each other.
Anticline An upfold / top of the mountain.
Syncline A downfold / valley.



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