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ANP 202 Exam 2 Study Guide

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Difference between Lemurs and other Prosimians   1. Lemurs only found in Madagascar 2. Lemurs are Female Dominated 3. Lemurs can be Nocturnal and Diurnal  
Platyrrhines   NWMs, found in Central and South America. Compared to OWMs, they have 4 extra premolars, prehensile tails, flatters noses with side-facing nostrils, are all arboreal.  
Atelidae   Largest Geographic range of NWM monkeys, Largest body size of NWMs Example: Spider Monkey, Mostly frugivorous, very long arms and tails Example: Howler Monkey, very folivorous, loudest land animal, female dominated 6-20 individuals.  
Callitrichids   NWMs, Smallest of all anthropoids, 80% bear twins forcing polyandrous groups.  
Cebids   Formerly included all NWMs except Callitrichids. Subfamilies are Capuchin and Squirrel Monkeys  
Pithicids   Include Titis, Saki, and Uakaris monkeys. Mostly in Brazilian Amazon, have highly variable coloration.  
Aotids   "Owl Monkeys". Nocturnal, 12 species found throughout South America and Panama  
Catarrhines   OWMs, all quadrupeds. Compared to NWMs, they are biochemically and physically more similar to humans (same dental formulae 2-1-2-3), inhabit a wider range of environments.  
Colobines   OWMs, includes 10 genera and 50 species. Found throughout Africa and Asia. Folivorous (35-75%), with specialized 4-chambered gut that allows digestion of leaves and deactivates toxins. Long tails, diverse coloration. Variation in newborn coat color.  
Cercopithecines   Very diverse subfamily, consisting of 12 genera and 71 species. Mostly limited to sub-saharan africa, except Macaques, which are found in other areas. Some live in very large social groups (250 individuals). Good analogies for evolution of early hominids  
Hominoid   Encompasses both Human and non-Human Apes. Suspensory Climbers. Characteristics include no tails, generally larger size. Greater Intelligence and learning ability. Invest more in their young. Y-5 pattern (5 cusps instead of 4).  
Hylobates   4 Genera of Gibbons, including 16 species  
Great Apes   Pongo (Orangutans) Gorilla, and Pan (2 "species" of chimpanzees)  
Gibbons (Is a Lesser Ape, everything else is a Greater Ape in terms of hominoids)   Extremely long arms relative to body and legs. Long fingers, short thumb (stays out of way while swinging), use hands like hooks to swing from branches. No sexual dimorphism in body size. Monogamous, mate for life. Both sexes have large canines.  
Gorillas   Characterized by extreme sexual dimorphism. Diet is ~85% leaves, so have special intestinal modifications. Social group uni-male: one male, several adult females and their off-spring  
Orangutans   Found only in tropical rain forests in Borneo and Sumatra. Vegetarians, 60% fruit. Not enough food to support large groups. Solitary Social Groups: Mother & Infant. Little danger of predators, so males not needed for protection. Uni-male  
Chimpanzees   Two species: Common Chimps and Bonobos. Seperated by Congo River. Central & West Africa. Sexual dimorphism between humans and gorillas. 70% fruit diet. Large Communities of 50 or more. Social structure constantly changes. Terrestrial and Arboreal.  
Bonobos   Sex: Often recreational, used to reinforce bonds and resolve conflict, relaxed mating during 20 day estrous period Dominance: Peaceful, Egalitarian societies, Mother-son bonds, females form bonds for mutual support and protection, killings almost unheard  
Common Chimps   Sex: Reproduction only, intense competition during 10 day estrous period, reproductive tactics can include infanticide. Dominance: Aggressive, Male-dominated societies, male alliances, inter-group killing.  
Taxonomy vs Taphonomy.   Taphonomy is the study of decaying organisms over time and how they become fossilized. Taxonomy is the system of classifying organisms.  
Mating Systems   Solitary, Polygyny(One-Male), Monogamy, Polygyny(Multimale), Polyandry. In polygynous groups, males compete against other males to control mating access. In monogamous groups only a single male is present(little selection favoring larger males)  
Intrasexual Selection   Sperm Competition: In multimale multifemale groups, sexual selection favors increased sperm production.  
Intersexual Selection   Favors: Traits in males that increase the fitness of their mates, indicate good genes and thus increase the fitness of the offspring, and nonadaptive traits that make males more conspicuous to females.  
Analogous vs Homologous   analogous=similar in function but not evolutionary origin homologous=similar in function and in evolutionary origin  
Prezygotic Barriers   Ecological/Habitat Isolation, Temporal Isolation, Ethological/Behavioral Isolation, Mechanical Isolation, Gametic Mortality or Incompatibility  
Postzygotic Barriers   F1 Inviability (Dead), F1 Sterility(Infertile), Hybrid Breakdown  
RIB   Reproductive Isolating Barrier/Mechanisms  
Human Growth Stages   Infancy, Childhood, Juvenile, Adolescence, Adulthood  
Infancy   Birth to weaning, 3 years in non-industrial societies. Characterized by Rapid Growth  
Childhood   Weaning till end of growth in brain weight, around age 7  
Juvenile   Age 7 to beginning of sexual maturation at age 10 in girls or age 12 in boys.  
Adolescence   Beginning at age 10 for girls and 12 for boys till adult hood. Sexual maturation and quickened body growth. Growth Spurt  
Adulthood   End of Growth  
Balance: Foot + Spine(How we walk upright)   Non-divergent big toe is used for pushing off when walking rather than grasping. Spine aids in balance when walking, spinal columns are vertical allowing the weight to be transmitted down through center of body. Curved, aids in shock absorption.  
Balance: Pelvis (How we walk upright)   Human pelvis is shorter and wider than apes. Shortness allows greater stability when we stand upright. Certain muscles attach more on the side aiding in balance without the need to bend knees. Butt is also larger, aids in standing and climbing.  
Balance: Legs (How we walk upright)   Weight is over our knees. Valgus Angle of Femur  
K-Selection   Putting lots of resources towards caring for offspring, means you have less total offspring.  
R-Selection   Lots of offspring, little care.  
Cladistics   Counts only shared derived traits, ignores shared primitive traits to form biological classifications. (Crocodile and Bird Similar)  
Phenetics   Focuses on overall physical similarities to group organisms. Counts both primitive and derived traits that are shared, doesn’t distinguish between homologous and convergent/parallel traits. (Lizard and Crocodile Simliar)  
Allometry   Study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour  
Handicap Principle   Essentially, the animal limits its fitness to increase its reproductive chances. Think male peacocks.  
   


   






 
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