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ANP 202 Exam 2

ANP 202 Exam 2 Study Guide

Difference between Lemurs and other Prosimians 1. Lemurs only found in Madagascar 2. Lemurs are Female Dominated 3. Lemurs can be Nocturnal and Diurnal
Platyrrhines NWMs, found in Central and South America. Compared to OWMs, they have 4 extra premolars, prehensile tails, flatters noses with side-facing nostrils, are all arboreal.
Atelidae Largest Geographic range of NWM monkeys, Largest body size of NWMs Example: Spider Monkey, Mostly frugivorous, very long arms and tails Example: Howler Monkey, very folivorous, loudest land animal, female dominated 6-20 individuals.
Callitrichids NWMs, Smallest of all anthropoids, 80% bear twins forcing polyandrous groups.
Cebids Formerly included all NWMs except Callitrichids. Subfamilies are Capuchin and Squirrel Monkeys
Pithicids Include Titis, Saki, and Uakaris monkeys. Mostly in Brazilian Amazon, have highly variable coloration.
Aotids "Owl Monkeys". Nocturnal, 12 species found throughout South America and Panama
Catarrhines OWMs, all quadrupeds. Compared to NWMs, they are biochemically and physically more similar to humans (same dental formulae 2-1-2-3), inhabit a wider range of environments.
Colobines OWMs, includes 10 genera and 50 species. Found throughout Africa and Asia. Folivorous (35-75%), with specialized 4-chambered gut that allows digestion of leaves and deactivates toxins. Long tails, diverse coloration. Variation in newborn coat color.
Cercopithecines Very diverse subfamily, consisting of 12 genera and 71 species. Mostly limited to sub-saharan africa, except Macaques, which are found in other areas. Some live in very large social groups (250 individuals). Good analogies for evolution of early hominids
Hominoid Encompasses both Human and non-Human Apes. Suspensory Climbers. Characteristics include no tails, generally larger size. Greater Intelligence and learning ability. Invest more in their young. Y-5 pattern (5 cusps instead of 4).
Hylobates 4 Genera of Gibbons, including 16 species
Great Apes Pongo (Orangutans) Gorilla, and Pan (2 "species" of chimpanzees)
Gibbons (Is a Lesser Ape, everything else is a Greater Ape in terms of hominoids) Extremely long arms relative to body and legs. Long fingers, short thumb (stays out of way while swinging), use hands like hooks to swing from branches. No sexual dimorphism in body size. Monogamous, mate for life. Both sexes have large canines.
Gorillas Characterized by extreme sexual dimorphism. Diet is ~85% leaves, so have special intestinal modifications. Social group uni-male: one male, several adult females and their off-spring
Orangutans Found only in tropical rain forests in Borneo and Sumatra. Vegetarians, 60% fruit. Not enough food to support large groups. Solitary Social Groups: Mother & Infant. Little danger of predators, so males not needed for protection. Uni-male
Chimpanzees Two species: Common Chimps and Bonobos. Seperated by Congo River. Central & West Africa. Sexual dimorphism between humans and gorillas. 70% fruit diet. Large Communities of 50 or more. Social structure constantly changes. Terrestrial and Arboreal.
Bonobos Sex: Often recreational, used to reinforce bonds and resolve conflict, relaxed mating during 20 day estrous period Dominance: Peaceful, Egalitarian societies, Mother-son bonds, females form bonds for mutual support and protection, killings almost unheard
Common Chimps Sex: Reproduction only, intense competition during 10 day estrous period, reproductive tactics can include infanticide. Dominance: Aggressive, Male-dominated societies, male alliances, inter-group killing.
Taxonomy vs Taphonomy. Taphonomy is the study of decaying organisms over time and how they become fossilized. Taxonomy is the system of classifying organisms.
Mating Systems Solitary, Polygyny(One-Male), Monogamy, Polygyny(Multimale), Polyandry. In polygynous groups, males compete against other males to control mating access. In monogamous groups only a single male is present(little selection favoring larger males)
Intrasexual Selection Sperm Competition: In multimale multifemale groups, sexual selection favors increased sperm production.
Intersexual Selection Favors: Traits in males that increase the fitness of their mates, indicate good genes and thus increase the fitness of the offspring, and nonadaptive traits that make males more conspicuous to females.
Analogous vs Homologous analogous=similar in function but not evolutionary origin homologous=similar in function and in evolutionary origin
Prezygotic Barriers Ecological/Habitat Isolation, Temporal Isolation, Ethological/Behavioral Isolation, Mechanical Isolation, Gametic Mortality or Incompatibility
Postzygotic Barriers F1 Inviability (Dead), F1 Sterility(Infertile), Hybrid Breakdown
RIB Reproductive Isolating Barrier/Mechanisms
Human Growth Stages Infancy, Childhood, Juvenile, Adolescence, Adulthood
Infancy Birth to weaning, 3 years in non-industrial societies. Characterized by Rapid Growth
Childhood Weaning till end of growth in brain weight, around age 7
Juvenile Age 7 to beginning of sexual maturation at age 10 in girls or age 12 in boys.
Adolescence Beginning at age 10 for girls and 12 for boys till adult hood. Sexual maturation and quickened body growth. Growth Spurt
Adulthood End of Growth
Balance: Foot + Spine(How we walk upright) Non-divergent big toe is used for pushing off when walking rather than grasping. Spine aids in balance when walking, spinal columns are vertical allowing the weight to be transmitted down through center of body. Curved, aids in shock absorption.
Balance: Pelvis (How we walk upright) Human pelvis is shorter and wider than apes. Shortness allows greater stability when we stand upright. Certain muscles attach more on the side aiding in balance without the need to bend knees. Butt is also larger, aids in standing and climbing.
Balance: Legs (How we walk upright) Weight is over our knees. Valgus Angle of Femur
K-Selection Putting lots of resources towards caring for offspring, means you have less total offspring.
R-Selection Lots of offspring, little care.
Cladistics Counts only shared derived traits, ignores shared primitive traits to form biological classifications. (Crocodile and Bird Similar)
Phenetics Focuses on overall physical similarities to group organisms. Counts both primitive and derived traits that are shared, doesn’t distinguish between homologous and convergent/parallel traits. (Lizard and Crocodile Simliar)
Allometry Study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour
Handicap Principle Essentially, the animal limits its fitness to increase its reproductive chances. Think male peacocks.
Created by: Bishxc