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Chap. 28

Assessing clients with cardiac disorders

QuestionAnswer
Each contraction ejects a certain volume of blood called? Stroke volume (SV)
The amount of blood pumped by the ventricles in to the pulmonary and systemic circulation in one minute =? Cardiac Output (CO)
HR x SV =? HR x SV = CO
The average Cardiac Output of adults =? 4-8L/min
The percentage of total blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole which is ejected with each beat is called? Ejection Fraction (EF)
Normal ejection fractions range from ___% to ___% 50% to 70%
The heart’s ability to respond to the body’s changing needs for cardiac output is called? cardiac reserve
The coronary arteries fill mainly during diastole/systole? diastole
The amount of cardiac muscle fiber tension, or stretch, that exists at the end of diastole, just before contraction of the ventricles is called? Preload
The force the ventricles must overcome to eject their blood volume – the pressure in the arterial system ahead of the ventricles is called? Afterload
Right ventricular afterload is measured as? pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR)
Afterload of the left ventricle is measured as? systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
The inherent capability of the cardiac muscle fibers to shorten is called? Contractility
Acts as normal pacemaker of the heart? sinoatrial (SA) node
The SA node usually generates ___ to ___ impulses per minute? 60 to 100
If the radial pulse falls behind the apical rate, the client has a? pulse deficit
Weak, ineffective contractions of the left ventricle may be indicated by a ______ ______? A pulse deficit
A regularly irregular rhythm where there is an early beat every second beat is called? bigeminy
A pattern of gradual increase and decrease in heart rate that is within normal HR and correlates with inspiration and expiration is called? sinus arrhythmia
Scale of murmurs: Barely heard =? I
Scale of murmurs: Quietly heard =? II
Scale of murmurs: Clearly heard =? III
Scale of murmurs: Loud =? IV
Scale of murmurs: Very loud =? V
Scale of murmurs: Loudest (may be heard with stethoscope off the chest =? VI
Midsystolic murmur are heard with? Semilunar valve disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Pansystolic murmur are heard with? AV valve disease (e.g., mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, ventricular septal defect)
Late systolic murmur are heard with? Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
Early diastolic murmur are heard with? Regurgitant flow across incompetent semilunar valves (e.g., aortic regurgitation)
Mid diastolic and presystolic murmurs are heard with? Turbulent flow across the AV valves (e.g., mitral stenosis)
Continuous murmurs throughout systole and all or part of diastole are heard with? Patent ductus arteriosus
Which circulatory process supplies the heart with blood? Systemic/pulmonary/coronary/hepatic coronary
Where do you assess apical impulse? Left MCL, 5th ICS/Left substernal, 6th ICS/Richt midaxillary, 2nd ICS/Left MCL, 5th ICS Left MCL, 5th ICS
The cardiac output (CO) adjusted for body size is called? Cardiac index (CI)
Cardiac Index (CI) is equal to? The Cardiac Output (CO) divided by the Body Surface Area (BSA)
Cardiac Output is determined by four major factors. List them. heart rate, preload, afterload, and contractility
Activity level, metabolic rate, stress responses, age, and body size all influence ______ _______? Cardiac Output
The purpose of the superior vena cava is? Returns blood from above the diaphragm/Returns blood from below the diaphragm/Drains blood from the heart/Receives freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins Returns blood from above the diaphragm
Which of the following does not influence cardiac output? Metabolic rate/Age/Body size/Gender Gender
The instructor explains that the normal "pacemaker" of the heart is? The atrioventricular (AV) node/The sinoatrial (SA) node/The Purkinje fibers/The bundle of His The sinoatrial (SA) node
The nurse notes the radial pulse falls behind the apical pulse as? Inaccurate assessment technique/Congestive heart failure/Weak, ineffective contractions of the right ventricle/Weak, ineffective contractions of the left ventricle Weak, ineffective contractions of the left ventricle
While assessing a client's heart sounds, the nurse notes a murmur which is clearly heard. Which of the following grades will the nurse document this murmur as? Grade I/Grade II/Grade III/Grade IV Grade III
The nurse notes a 76 bpm heart rate and a pattern of gradual increase and decrease in heart rate that correlates with inspiration and expiration. The nurse documents this as? Sinus arrhythmia/Bradycardia/Tachycardia/Bigeminy Sinus arrhytmia
A nursing student correctly identifies the first heart sound as which of the following? Closure of the semilunar valves/Closure of the atrioventricular valves/S3/S4 Closure of the atrioventricular valves
A nurse correctly assesses for the heart's high pitched sounds when he? Asks the client to remain in the supine position/Asks the client to exhale and hold the breath while listening/Auscultates with the bell/Auscultates with the diagphragm Auscultate each area with the diaphragm of the stethoscope
Created by: hwk