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Cardiac Smart Girl


valve between right atrium & right ventricle tRIGHTcuspid (tricuspid) valve
pacemaker of the heart at rate of 60-100 bpm SA Node
Major VEIN of the head Jugular
Receives blood from the superior & Inferior vena cava Right Atrium
Space between the parietal & visceral layer Pericardial Space
Pumps blood into the systemic circulation Left Ventricle
3 Layers of the heart 1. Endocardium (musc) 2. Epicardium (outer) 3. Pericardium (inner fibrous)
Receives OXYGENATED blood from the pulmonary veins Left Atrium
Valve between the left atrium & the left ventricle mitraLEFT (mitral) valve
Paces the heart at 40-60 bpm AV Node
High pitched sound occuring when mitral & tricuspid valves close
Sound created by turbulent blood flow Murmur
Ventricular contraction is known as Systole
Name the semilunar valves pulmonic & Aoric valves
What makes the S1 & S2 sounds S1=closing of the Mitral & Bicuspid valves S2=closing of the Aortic & Pulmonic valves
Which coronary supplies the AV Node Right Coronary Artery
What are the 3 main coronary arteries 1. Right Cornary Artery 2. Left Anterior Descending 3. Circuflex Coronary Artery
Name the conduction through the heart SA Node - AV Node - Bundle of HIS - R & L Bundle Branch - Perkinje fibers
Normal range for the PR interval 0.12-0.20 seconds
Normal range for the QRS complex < 0.12 seconds
Normal range for the QT interval < 0.44
The P wave represents Atrial contraction or Atrial Depolarization
The QRS complex represents Ventricular Depolarization
The T wave represents Repolarization of the ventricles
The U wave represents Repolarization of Perkinje Fibers
If a U wave is present what lald be labs should be drawn Draw k & expect hypokalemia
The QRS complex represents Ventricular Depolarization
The T wave represents Repolarization of the ventricles
The U wave represents Repolarization of Perkinje Fibers
If a U wave is present what lald be labs should be drawn Draw k & expect hypokalemia
an abnormal assessment finding inspected while the PT is gradually elevated from supine to upright (30-45 degrees). Distention & prominent pulsations caused by an increase in R atrial pressure Jugular Vein distention
Central cyanosis Inadequate O2 saturation of arterial blood s/s include bluish, purplish tinge in central areas such as tongue, conjunctivae, inner lips
Decreased bloodflow to extremities b/c of hear failure, vasoconstriction, or cold enviornment s/s include bluish, purplish tinge extremeties, or on nose & ears peripheral cyanosis
Pulsus Alternans Reg rhythm, strength & pulsevaries with each beat. *every other beat will decrease, going from high amplitude to low
Pulsus Paradoxus Blood in pericardial space compresses heart when PT takes a breath in *Caused by Cardiac Tamponade
Bruits Turbulent bloodflow w/i a vessel
Cause of Distended neck veins Fluid Overload
What should you assess for if you find an absent pulse Assess for presence of a clot or damage
HR >100 Tachycardia which can be caused by anxiety, pain, fever, or hyperthyroidism
HR <60 Bradycardia which could be caused by sleep, meds, or adv rxn to meds
*Pericardial Friction Rub is usually caused by Pericarditis
To perform an assessment on an individual with kyphosis what should you do Alter chest landmarks
Gero consideration: Fibrosis of the conduction sys will cause lengthening of QRS, PRI, & QTI and irreg HR
Gero consideration: Calcification of heart valves may cause systolic murmurs (aortic or mitral)
Increased WBCs may be due to Infection or Inflammation during an MI
Why would you check RBCs, Hct & Hgb To check oxygen carrying capicity
Decreased Plateles may indicate an increased risk for bleeding
CK (creatinine kinase) presence gives info about injury to brain, heart or skeletal musc *know it is not specific to the heart
CK-MB (specific to the heart) increased means there myocardial tissue injury (there should normally be none present). Onset 4-6hrs, peak 18-24hrs & returns to baseline w/i 3 days after MI
What is Troponin Myocardial Musc Protein only release into circulation after injury. Detectable w/i 1hr, has a high specificity 3-6hrs, peak w/i 12 hrs, can be detected up to 14 days
What is Myoglobin A very sensitive early indicator of Myocardial Injury, increases in 30-60 mins following injury, but declines after 7hrs
What does an increase in Homocysteine indicate linked to a 1st Cardiac events, predicts a stroke or MI
What does an increase in C-Reactive Protein indicate Acute MI inflammation
What does an increase in BNP (B-Natriuretic Peptide)indicate Heart failure, *It aids in distinguishing Cardiac vs Respiratory cause of Dyspnea
How does hypokalemia affect the heart Impairs myocardial conduction & prolongs ventricular repolarization
How is Hypokalemia represented on an ECG PVC's (usaully 1st sign), V-Tach, V-Fib & Prominent U wave
Created by: shidac