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Medical Biochem

Metabolism

QuestionAnswer
Metabolism The sum of all chemical transformations taking place in a cell. The overall process by which living systems acquire and utilize energy. The overall network of enzyme catalyzed reaction pathways.
Metabolic Pathways Linear Pathway: glycolysis Branched Pathway: amino acid biosynthesis Cyclic Pathway: citric acid cycle.
Network Nature of Metabolism Initial reactants vs. intermediates vs. final products.
Metabolic Pathways Linear Pathway: glycolysis Branched Pathway: amino acid biosynthesis Cyclic Pathway: citric acid cycle
Anabolism build large molecules, require ATP, divergent pathways
Pharmacy relevance Must be spontaneous: thermodynamically favorable, negative delta G
Oxidizing Agent removes electrons from another reactant in a redox reaction. the oxidizing agent is reduced.
Redox Reactions An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) can be defined as a substance that removes electrons from another reactant in a redox chemical reaction. The oxidizing agent is reduced. Having electrons taken away.
delta G prime standard free energy when all components = 1.0M at pH7, 25C 1 atm.
delta G actual free energy change under cellular conditions.
Free energy changes during chemical reactions negative delta G: spontaneous positive delta G: need coupled reactions, Hess' Law zero delta G: Lechatelier's Principle.
large Keq spontaneous, large -deltaG or very negative delta G.
phosphoryl group transfer details special role of ATP as the energy currency that links catabolism and anabolism. use ATP to drive: anabolism, mechanical motion, & active transport.
Reverse Reactions Same absolute value just change the sign.
Importance of ATP intermediate phosphoryl transfer potential It is in the middle and may drive other reactions.
Regulation of metabolic pathways catabolic pathways are only activated when it is needed.
phosphocreatine during exercise 100m sprint fast-twitch muscle uses phosphocreatine to generate ATP. marathon- slow-twitch muscle uses slow and steady process of nutrient catabolism/oxidative phosphorylation(mitochondria)
Fats Most Energy; fatty acids.
Created by: anthony_lavell