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Forensic Science the application of science to criminal and civil laws
Paul Kirk Father of Forensic science in the US
Fields of forensic Science crime scene investigation, ciminalistics, forensic medicine, forensic anthropology, " entomology, " Toxicology, " engineering, " Odontology, " art, Jurisprudence, Forensic Psych
Forensic Engineer one who uses engineering skills to reconstruct events such as building collapses, train crashes, and car accidents
Forensic Art any type of artistic services taht aid in the pusuit of justice
Forensic Psychologists & Psychiatrists specialize in studying human psychology, psychiatry and behavior in order to examine the suspect to determine his or her psychological conditions, to profile criminals as well as victims, and to answer other legal questions related to human behavior
Jurisprudence the philosophy of law
How forensics applies in justice system Criminal Investigation Civil Dispute Public Safety Environmental Protection National Security Historical Importance ConsumerProtection Product Safety Food/ Water Contamination Medication Integrity International&DomesticTerrorism BuildingRoadBridgeSafe
Forensic Pathology 3rd century China
Toxicology Orfila (1814)
Anthropometry Alphonse Bertillion (1879)
Fingerprint ancient China, Faulds (1880), Galton (1892) and Henry (1896, 1901)
Transfer Theory Edmond Locard (1904)
Serology (Blood) Romans, Shonbein (1863), Landsteiner (1900)
DNA Alec Jeffreys (1984)
Sherlock Holmes Arthur Doyle (1887)
Criminalistics Hans Gross (1891)
Forensic Science Paul Kirk (1950)
Functions of a forensic scientist Find, Document, and Interpret data
The Frye Standard The Frye v. United States decision set guidelines for determining the admissibility of scientific evidence into the courtroom. To meet the Frye standard, the evidence in question must be “generally accepted” by the scientific community.
Daubert Criteria For Admissibility Whether the scientific technique or theory can be tested. Whether the technique has been subject to peer review and publication.
Daubert Criteria for Admissibility (cont.) The techniques potential rate of error. Existence and maintenance of standards. Whether the scientific theory has attracted widespread acceptance within a relevant scientific community
Observation our brains filter out information, our brains fill in gaps with perception, our brains can aply old knowledge to new situations,
Witness observations can be affected by emotional state, wha ttye of activity and how much was going on around them, who they were with and who was around
Innocence Project Barry C. Scheck and Peter J. Neufeld at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, starting in 1992, use DNA to examine post-conviction cases they have found that up to 87% of the wrongful convictions they discovered were due to faulty eyewitness mistakes
How to e a good observer observe systematically, turn off filters, leave the final interpretation of data for later, documentation!!
Observations in forensics Study situations. Find clues in ordinary details. Work backwards from the evidence to what led up to the crime. Be patient. Practice.
Groupings of evidence: Trasient temporarily easily changed or lost, usually observed by the first officer, odor, temperature, imprints, indentations
Groupings of evidence: Pattern Produced by direct contact between a person and object or two objects eg. imprints, indentations, fractures, deposits
Groupings of evidence:Conditional Produced by a specific event or action; imp in reconstruction eg. lights on or off, smoke/fire color direction, injuries/vehicle/weapons etc.
Groupings of evidence:Transfer Produced by erson/person/object
Groupings of evidence: Associative something that may associate a victim or suspect with the crime eg. personal belongings
Locard's Principle of Exchange When a person comes in contact with an object or another person, a cross-transfer of physical material can occur. Study of the material can determine the nature and duration of the transfer.
Direct vs Circumstantial Evidence Based on type of observation of the crime Direct (eyewitness accounts, video, confessions) Circumstantial (biological/physical)
Class vs. Individual evidence based on wheather the evidence narrows the identification down to an individual or group Class (narrows id down to a group eg bloodtype) individual (narrows id down to single person eg. DNA or fingerrint)
Trace evidence a type of circumstantial evidence including both physical and biological evidence Def: small but measurable amounts of physical or biological material found at a crime scene
People and jobs at the crime scene Police Police – often the first-responder
People and jobs at the crime scene DA DA – may be there to determine whether search warrant is needed
People and jobs at the crime scene Crime scene Investigators Crime scene investigators Includes Recorders, sketch artists, photographers, evidence collectors
People and jobs at the crime scene Medical Examiners Medical examiners = coroners For homicides; needed to det. Cause of death
People and jobs at the crime scene Detectives Detectives -Look for leads by interviewing witnesses Talks to CSI team about the evidence
People and jobs at the crime scene Specialists Specialists if certain expertise is needed
Seven S's of the Crime Scene Secure the scene, separate, scan, see (photography, notes, video taping), sketch, search(line, strip, snake, grid, wheel, spiral, zone, link), Secure the evidence
Chain of Custody in order to present evidence a chain of custody must be present.
Analyzing the evidence The facts of the case are determined when the forensic lab processes all the collected evidence. The lab then sends the results to the lead detective who aims to see how it all fits into the crime scenario.
Analyzing the evidence cont. The lab results can: Show how reliable are any witness accounts. Establish the identity of suspects or victims. Show suspects to be innocent or link them with a scene or victim.
Crime Scene Reconstruction forming a hypothesis of the sequence of events, from before the crime was committed, throug its commission
Staged Crimes When the lab results do not match up with the testimony of witnesses, it can mean the crime was staged,
Determining if a crime was staged Whether the type of wound found on the victim matches the weapon employed. Whether the wound could have been easily self-inflicted. The mood and actions of the victim before the event. The mood and actions of a suspect before the event.
Created by: mpolizzi1