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VNSG 1231 Exam 2

Pharmacology Ch 7 & 8

Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with tissue damage Pain
unrelieved/undertreated pain is common but avoidable health problem Fifth vital sign
Pain that has a sudden onset, and identifiable cause, and a limited duration Acute pain
the psychologic need or craving for the high feeling that results from using opioids when pain is not present Addiction
drugs that provide pain relief by either changing the perception of pain or reducing its source Analgesics
drugs used to treat allergies and allergic reactions Antihistamines
drugs that depress the CNS and induce sleep by binding with gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors benzodiazepine receptor agonists
a class of psychotropic drugs with hypnotic and sedative effects used mainly as tranquilizers to control symptoms of anxiety or stress and as sleeping aids for insomnia benzodiazepines
pain that has a lone duration, may not have an identifiable cause Chronic pain
a drug containing ingredients known to be addictive that is regulated by the federal controlled substances act of 1970 controlled substance
physical changes in autonomic nervous system function that can occur when opioids are used long term dependence
inability to go to sleep or to remain asleep throughout the night insomnia
a sleep problem with sudden, uncontrollable urges to sleep, causing a person to fall asleep at inappropriate times Narcolepsy
free sensory nerve endings that, when activated, trigger a message sent to the brain that allows the perception of pain Nociceptors
a drug that reduces a person's perception of pain nonopioid analgesic
a drug containing any ingredient derived from the poppy plant that changes a person's perception of pain and has potential for psychologic or physical dependence opioid analgesic
the smallest amount of tissue damage that must be present before a person is even aware that they are in pain Pain threshold
a person's ability to endure pain intensity Pain tolerance
drugs that promote sleep by targeting signals in the brain to produce calm and ease agitation Sedatives
a natural and necessary periodic state of rest for the mind and body Sleep
a shortage of quality, undisturbed sleep with detrimental effects on physical and mental well being Sleep deprivation
has both unique features and features in common with acute and chronic pain Cancer pain
the agency with the responsibility for enforcing the distribution of controlled substances in the US is the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
Classification of controlled substances schedule one high potential for abuse
classification of controlled substances schedule five low potential for abuse
opioid analgesics are also called Narcotics
pain intensity using appropriate pain scale, and when was the last dose given when administering analgesic drugs always check this before you give the med
when administering analgesic drugs what should you check after giving the med the amount of pain 30 minutes, then hourly
patient teaching when administering a analgesic drug instruct how to achieve best pain relief
bind to opioid receptors sites in brain and alter the perception of pain Opoiods
constipation, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, and dizziness side effects of opioids
respiratory depression, addiction, dependence, tolerance, and withdrawl Adverse side effects to opioids
what should you check before administering opioids RR O2 dose and drug name
what should you check after administering opioids RR and O2 at least hourly, bowel pattern
what should you teach your patients about taking opioids take with food, do not drive, change positions slowly, and increase fluids and activity
life span considerations in children while giving opioids dosage based on weight,age, health, and pain severity
Life span considerations for mothers while taking opioids newborn addiction can occur, avoid breast feeding if taking opioids
life span consideration in older adults while taking opioids pain often undertreated, visual impairment, risk for falls, and avoid demoral
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs
suppress part of the inflammatory pathway NSAIDs
reduce clotting, headache, irritation of GI tract, reduce blood flow to kidney Side effects of NSAIDs
induction of asthma and salicylate poisoning adverse effects of NSAIDs
check previous problems with NSAIDs, including OTCs, give after meals with full glass of water or milk, blood pressure Things to check before administering NSAIDs
bleeding, even with one dose, and sensitivity reaction things to check after administering NSAIDs
do not take on an empty stomach, monitor for bleeding, and do not take with warfarin(coumadin) patient teaching for NSAIDs
only ibuprofen is recommended and avoid aspirin Life span considerations in children while taking NSAIDs
category C drug for first six months and avoid during last three months of pregnancy Life span considerations in mothers while taking NSAIDs
cardiac problems life span consideration in adults while taking NSAIDs
effective for pain relief, commonly combined with other drugs, toxic when taken at high doses, too often, or with alcohol, risk for permanent liver or kidney damage Acetaminophen
toxic to liver and kidneys at high doses, must calculate doses accurately, and parents must read labels to determine strength pediatric consideration while taking acetaminophen
reduce some types of chronic and cancer pain Antidepressants
constipation, dry mouth, urinary retention, sweating, sexual dysfunction, intraocular pressure side effects of antidepressants
not recommend except for cancer pain, suicidal behavior life span considerations for antidepressants in children
categories B and C, benefit must outweigh the risk, avoid breastfeeding life span considerations for antidepressants in pregnant mothers
heart problems, worsen urinary problems, and worsen glaucoma life span considerations for antidepressants in older adults
anticonvulsants reduce some types of pain neuropathic pain, and migraines
Gabapentin(Neurontin) and Pregabalin (lyrica) common anticonculsant drugs
drowsiness, confusion, blurred vision, clumsiness, muscle aches, and weakness side effects of anticonvulsants
most common sleep problem insomnia
benzodiazepines, antihistamines, and sedating antidepressants Sedatives
cause general depression of CNS, or drowsiness and mild sedation drugs for insomnia
increased attention span, motor activity, and mental alertness during waking hours intended response of drugs for narcolepsy
seizures, abnormal heart rhythm and chest pain adverse effects of drugs for narcolepsy
methylphenidate can slow growth (height and weight) life span considerations in children of drugs for nacrolepsy
normal reactions of tissues in response to injury or invasion inflammation
invading microorganism disturb normal environment and cause harm Infection
warm, redness, swelling, and pain s/s of inflammation
stage 1 of inflammation vascular: vessels dilate
stage 2 of inflammation Exudate
stage 3 of inflammation tissue repair
prevent or limit tissue and blood vessel response to injury or invasion Anti-inflammatory drugs
prevent inflammation by slowing or stopping all known pathways of inflammatory Corticosteriods
short term therapy-hypertension, acne, insomnia, and nervousness side effects of corticosteriods
long term therapy- adrenal gland suppression, reduced immune function, delayed wound healing, and cushingoid appearance side effects of corticosteriods
prevent inflammation by slowing the production of one or more inflammatory mediators NSAIDs
bleeding, GI ulcers, GI pain, fluid retention, and hypertension side effects of NSAIDs
possible kidney damage, induction of asthma and allergic reactions adverse effects of NSAIDs
reduce inflammation by preventing inflammatory midiator from binding to its receptor Histamine
seasonal allergies, reduce swelling of oral, nasal, eye, and mucus membranes Leukotriene inhibitors
morphine, hydromorphone, meperidine, codeine, fentanyl, and tramadol Common opioids
morphine Morphine sulfate
hydromorphone Dilaudid
meperidine Demoral
oxycodone Oxycontin, Oxyfast
oxycodone with acetaminophen Percocet, Tylox
oxycodone with aspirin Oxycodan, Percodan
hydrocodone with acetaminophen Dolacet, Vicodin
salicylic acid, propionic acid, acetic acid and cox 2 common NSAIDs
salicylic acid aspirin
propionic acid ibprofen
acetic acid ketorolac
cox 2 Celebrex
ambien, sonata, flurazepam, temazepam common drugs for insomnia
zolpidem Ambien
zaleplon Sonata
flurazepam Dalmane
quazepam Doral
estazolam ProSom
temazepam Restoril
Ritalin, Provigil, and Xyrem drugs for narcolepsy
methylphenidate Ritalin
modafinil Provigil
sodium oxybate Xyrem
Created by: nursekk