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VNSG 1400 Exam 2

Nursing in Health and Illness

Metabolic disorder of the pancreas Diabetes Mellitus
Abdominal obesity, HTN, elvated LDP, triglycerides, blood glucose levels, and low HDL Metabolic Syndrome
what percentage of adults acquire the diabetes mellitus disorder as adults 90-95%
Diabetes Mellitus is increased in what races African americans, latinos, native americans, and asian americans
the problem in Diabetes mellitus is in the pancreas
the islets of langerhans hormone secreting cells; releases insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide
lowers the level of blood glucose when it rises above normal limits Insulin
raises blood sugar levels by stimulating glycogenolysis Glucagon
breaks down glucose from the liver Glycogenolysis
helps maintain a constant level of blood sugar by inhibiting the release of insulin and glucagon Somatostatin
it is a chronic systemic disease Diabetes Mellitus
the exact cause of diabetes is unknown
family history of diabetes Heredity risk factors
what percent of type 1 diabetes carry islet of Langerhans 80%
Hispanic, African American, or Indian have a 33% higher chance of getting diabetes
Hispanic have a 30% higher risk for type 2 diabetes
Indian have a 33-50% higher risk for type 2 diabetes
the leading cause of blindness Diabetic eye disease
leading cause of foot and leg amputations Gangrene
leading cause of end stage renal disease Kidney disease
hardening of the blood vessels Atherosclerosis
the body's chief fuel Glucose
the only source of nutrition for the brain Glucose
people with pre-diabetes have impaired fasting glucosse 100-125mg/dL and impaired tolerance 140-199mg/dL
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM-Type 1
Type one diabetes was formally called juvenile onset
treatment for type 1 diabetic is insulin injections, diet and exercise
A type one diabetic is more prone to Hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis
Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM- Type 2
type two diabetes was formally known as Adult diabetes
Pregnancy induced diabetes gestational diabetes
in type one diabetes the glucose does not enter the cell because insulin is not available to "unlock" the door
when fat is metabolized because of the lack of glucose ketones are released and excreted in the urine as acetone
when too many ketones are released, they accumulate in the body and cause diabetic coma or ketoacidosis
increased urine output polyuria
polydipsia increased thirst
increased hunger polyphagia
symptoms due to dehydration in type 1 diabetes warm, dry, flushed skin, poor skin turgor, rapid weak pulse, low blood pressure, dry mucus membranes, and malaise
symptoms due to ketosis loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weakness, thirst, acetone breath, lethargic, and coma
abdominal pain, blood glucose 300-1000mg/dL, urine positive for glucose and ketones, blood pH<7.35, biocarbonate level acidic<22 Other symptoms of type one diabetes
noncompliance with medical regimen, infection, failure to eat, vomiting, and stress causes for ketoacidosis
reduce elevated blood glucose, correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, clear urine and blood of ketones goals of treating DKA
Diabetic Ketoacidosis DKA
makes glucose available for use by tissues Insulin drip
rehydration of cells IV fluid replacement
causes potassium to move from the extracellular fluid to the cells Insulin
The acid base balance is disrupted ketoacidosis
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome HNNKS
patient goes into coma from hyperglycemia, but ketones are not elevated HNNKS
gives an average of the glucose level for the past 2-4 months Glycoslated hemoglobin also called A1C
pt will eat a meal of about 100g of carbs after an overnight fast Postprandial glucose test
normal glucose levels 80-120mg/dL
may not become evident until glucose exceeds the renal threshold Glycosuria and ketonuria
3 p's, dry skin, blurred vision, drowsiness, weight loss, fatigue, and dehydration S/S of hyperglycemia
tremors, tachycardia, sweating, anxious, dizziness, irritable, slurred speech, impaired judgement S/S of hypoglycemia
hunger, nausea, vision diturbances, fatigue, HA, and weakness S/S shared for hypo and hyperglycemia
Created by: nursekk