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Chapter 1: Nutrition Basics

Nutrition study of foods, their nutrients and chemical constituents, and the effects of food constituents on health
Nutrition is an ____ science interdisciplinary
Recommendations for the public ___ as new knowledge is gained. changes
Healthy individuals require the ___ nutrients across the life cycle but in ____ amounts. same; different
What effects the health status of a person during subsequent years of life? nutritional status during one stage of the life cycle
food security having access at all times
food insecurity limited access to food
Food is a _____ need on what diagram? physiological; Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
calorie a measure of the amount of energy transferred from food to the body
nutrients chemical substances in food that are used by the body
What are the six categories of nutrients? carbohydrates proteins fats (lipids) vitamins minerals water
Essential nutrients needed by the body because we can't make them ourselves: -carbohydrates -9 amino acids, "building blocks" of proteins -essential fatty acids (linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid -vitamins and minerals -water
nonessential nutrients present in foods, but not required in the diet because we can make them
examples of nonessential nutrients cholesterol creatine glucose
factors that impact nutrient needs age, body size, gender, genetic traits, growth, illness, lifestyle habits, medications, pregnancy
dietary reference intakes (DRIs) -recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) -adequate intakes (AIs) -estimated average requirements (EARs) -tolerable upper intake levels (ULs)
DRIs nutrient intake standards for healthy people
RDAs levels of essential nutrients adequate for most healthy people following this decreases the risk for certain chronic diseases
AIs "tentative" RDAs used when scientific information is less conclusive
EARs estimated values to meet requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group -used to assess adequacy of intakes of population groups
ULs upper limits of nutrients compatiable with health -these limits should not be exceeded
What makes people reach their UL? supplements do, not usually food
What nutrient intakes are required on the label? total fat saturated fat cholesterol sodium total carbohydrates dietary fiber vitamin A vitamin C calcium iron
simple carbohydrates have 2 groups monosacchrides disaccharides
complex carbohydrates have 3 groups starches glycogen fiber
Starches complex carb plants are a major source
glycogen animal storage in liver and skeletal muscles
fiber dietary fibers and digested well by people
2 other "carbohydrates" alcohol sugars and ethanol
Recommended intake level of carbohydrates 45-65% of calories
Added sugar should be what percentage of the diet? 25% or less (problems arrive after this number is exceeded)
Amount of fiber needed for males and females? Males: 38g Females: 25g (AI for both)
Food sources of carbohydrates plants and milk
What are proteins makes up of? amino acids build them; made up of essential and nonessential amino acids
Protein quality? animal sources are the best qulaity; these provide all 9 essential amino acids
Recommended intake of protein? 10-35% of calories
Protein's function? Mainly used for enzymes and structures not a major source of energy unless you are severely starving and your body has to take from the fat reserves
What are fats? a subclass of lipids
Fats are ___ at room temp. solid
Oils are ____ at room temp. liquid
Oils are usually what type of fat? contain more unsaturated fatty acid chains
Triglycerides glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached
What is the difference between omega-3 and 6? where the double bond is in the side chain
What are the 2 essential fatty acids? 1. linoleic (omega-6)[oils] 2. alpha-linolenic (omega-3) [fish, seafood, flax]
Desirable ratio for omega-6 to omega-3? 4 to 1
Americans have what as their ratio of omega-6 to omega-3? 9:1
What are the types of saturation states? saturated unsaturated
Saturated contains no double bonds
Unsaturated monounsaturated- one double bond polyunsaturated- 2 or more double bonds
Hydrogenation adds hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids
Hydrogen does what? changes structure of fatty acid from cis structure to trans form
What is cholesterol? fat-soluble, clear liquid found in animal products
Cholesterol is a precursor of? estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D
Are all fats created equal? No. But there are really no good or bad fats
What are "unhealthful fats"? raise LDL cholesterol (ex. trans and saturated fats/ cholesterol)
What are "healthful fats"? raise HDL cholesterol (ex. monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic, EPA, DHA)
Recommended intake of fats 20-35% of calories, limit unhealthful fats
Recommended intake of linoleic acid (omega-6) 17g/ day: men 12g/ day: females
Recommended intake of alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) 1.6 g/day: men 1.1 g/day: females
Water soluble vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate, B12, biotin, pantothenic acid
Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K
What are the main sources of fat soluble vitamins?
What are the two functions of vitamins? coenzymes & antioxidants
Coenzymes activate and aid metabolic processes
Antioxidants reduce stress on the body
What are the 15 essential minerals? calcium phosphorus magnesium iron zinc flouride iodine selenium copper maganese chromium molybdenum sodium potassium chloride
What is the most common mineral that is overdosed easily and why? iron because it is common when people take supplements
All the minerals vary in 3 things functions, overdoses, and deficiencies
What % of our bodies are water? 60-70%
Recommended daily intake of water for males and females? females: 11 cups males: 12-16 (higher calorie needs are assumed)
What percentage of water is from fluids and food? fluids= 75% food= 25%
What is the best dietary source of water? water and nonalcoholic drinks alcoholic drinks increase water loss through the urine
Where do health problems that relate to nutrition originate? in the cell
Homeostasis constancy of internal environment
What ruins homeostasis? too much or too little of anything
Poor nutrition can result from? too much or too little of nutrient levels
Consequences by level of intake of nutrients when nutrient levels of intake increase or decrease to dramatic points, death can occur on either end
The steps in development of nutrient deficiencies and toxicities are ___? the same
ripple effect dietary changes introduced to improve intake of one nutrient affect intake level of other nutrients
example of the ripple effect interconnectedness of process and nutrients like folate, B12, and B6 work together and could be messed up easily or beneficial. Good or bad!
The human body has what to manage fluctuations in food intake? adaptive mechanisms
What are some examples of the body managing fluctuations in food intake? nutrient storage regulation of appetite regulation of absorption
Primary malnutrition dietary in origin (food diet)
Secondary malnutrition precipitated by an enviromental factor like disease state, surgical procedure, etc.
Nutrigenomics study of nutrient-gene interactions and the effects of these interactions on health
Genes code for what? enzymes and protein synthesis, which affect body functioning
examples of nutrient-gene interactions eating whole oats lowers cholesterol in some people but not others -alcohol intake during pregnancy in some woemn sharply increases the risk of fetal alcohol syndrome -green tea reduces risk of prostate cancer in some men
True or false? Some people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others. true because throughout the life cycle, the amount of needs of nutrients changes
What influences the development of certain chronic diseases? poor nutrition ex. increased consumption of saturated fat will cause heart disease
What are key characteristics of a healthy diet? adequacy and balance
In a healthy diet, there are two things that you should bring into yours. variety nutrient-dense foods avoiding empty-calorie foods
Are there any good or bad foods? No, there is a continuum of foods. You should try to look for nutrient dense foods because foods are not equal in the nutrients they provide
Nutrient-dense foods contain high amounts of nutrients to calories
Empty-calorie Foods contain low amounts of nutrients to calories
Nutrition facts panel list? fat saturated fat trans fat cholesterol sodium total carbohydrates fiber sugars protein vitamin A vitamin C calcium iron
What are the problem nutrients that are easy to overdose on from the panel list? vitamin A, C, and calcium
The DV% is not listed for what nutrient on a label? Protein because it is based on weight not calorie diet.
Ingredients are listed by what on a package? weight, starting with the greatest amount
Enrichment refined grain products have thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and iron FOR GRAINS ONLY
Fortified addition of any other nutrient
examples of fortification refined flour= folic acid milk= vitamin D lowfat & skim milk= vitamins A&D
Prebiotics fiberlike, indigestible CHO broken down by bacteria it fuels bacteria that helps sustain us
Probiotics live, beneficial bacteria
Amounts of nutrients vary by what? age, growth, and development
Diet may be defined by? culture and religion
To meet nutrient needs, one must consider these factors: gender age ethnicity religion etc.
Community level assessment assesses the community's nutritional status -use statistics data, surveys, and observing
individual level assessment clinical/physiological dietary assessment anthropometric assessment biochemical assessment
Clinical/physical assessment inspection for features that may be related to malnutrition
Dietary assessment 24-hr diet recalls and records dietary history food frequency questionnaires use of software
USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method computerized, interactive method to collect 24-hr diet recalls used in gov-sponsored nutrition studies
5 steps of the USDA automated multiple pass method -quick list -forgotten food list -time and occasion list -detail cycle -final profile review
Anthropometric Assessment measurements of body size and shape
Biochemical assessment nutrient and enzyme levels DNA characteristic other bio markers done by blood draws, urine analysis etc.
Public Food and Nutrition Programs community programs state-level programs federal programs -school lunch program -WIC
Created by: starryeyes213