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BIO 204 Microbiology

specialized Disciplines in Microbiology geomicrobiologists, marine microbiologists, Medical microbiologists, nurse epidemologists, astrobiologists
genetic engineering manipulating the genes of organisms to make new products
bioremediation using living organisms to remedy sn environmental problem
biotechnology production of foods, drugs, and vaccines using living organisms
antonie van leeuwenhoek first to observe living microbes
Discovery of spores and sterilization john tyndall and ferdinad Cohn
Discovery of Aseptic techniques human body is source of infection. -Dr.oliver Wendall -dr.Ignaz semmelweis -joseph lister
traditional whittaker system of classification 5 kingdoms 2 cell types
woese-fox system propose three distinct cell lines -domain bacteria -domain archaea -domain eukarya
The six I's incubation, inoculation, isolation, inspection, information gathering, and identification
Specimen collection sample object of interest anything(body fluids, foods, water, soil, plants, and animals etc.)
Inoculation introduction of a sample into a container of media to produce a culture of observable growth
Isolation -seperating one species from another
incubation under conditions that allow growth
Inspection If a single species is growing in the container, you have a pure culture but if there are multiple species than you have a mixed culture
Ways to Identify a Microbe: -Cell and colony morphology or staining characteristics -DNA sequence -Biochemical tests to determine an organism’s chemical and metabolic characteristics -Immunological tests
Chemical composition synthetic and complex
functional type general purpose, enriched, selctive, differential, anarobic, transport, assay enumeration
Physical States of Media Liquid – broth; does not solidify Semisolid – contains solidifying agent Solid – firm surface for colony formation -Contains solidifying agent
Transmission electron microscopes transmit electrons through the specimen. Darker areas represent thicker, denser parts and lighter areas indicate more transparent, less dense parts.
Scanning electron microscopes provide detailed three-dimensional view. SEM bombards surface of a whole, metal-coated specimen with electrons while scanning back and forth over it.
Differential stains use a primary stain and a counterstain to distinguish cell types or parts (examples: Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and endospore stain)
Simple stains one dye is used; reveals shape, size, and arrangement
Acidic dyes anionic, negatively charged chromophore
Nutrient broth liquid medium containing beef extract and peptone
Synthetic – contains pure organic and inorganic compounds in an exact chemical formula
Enriched media – contains complex organic
Complex or nonsynthetic – contains at least one ingredient that is not chemically definable
General purpose media – grows a broad range of microbes, usually nonsynthetic
Selective media contains one or more agents that inhibit growth of some microbes and encourage growth of the desired microbes
Differential media allows growth of several types of microbes and displays vixible differences among those microbes
reducing medium contains a substance that absorbs oxygen or slows penetration of oxygen into the medium
Characteristics of Cells and Life Basic shape – spherical, cubical, cylindrical Internal content – cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane DNA chromosome(s), ribosomes, metabolic capabilities
Reproduction and heredity genome composed of DNA packed in chromosomes; produce offspring sexually or asexually
Glycocalyx surface coating
Flagella Filament – long, thin, helical structure composed of protein flagellin Hook – curved sheath Basal body – stack of rings firmly anchored in cell wall
Monotrichous single flagellum at one end
Lophotrichous small bunches emerging from the same site
Amphitrichous flagella at both ends of cell
Peritrichous flagella dispersed over surface of cell
Fimbriae Fine, proteinaceous, hairlike bristles emerging from the cell surface
Created by: 1185169440