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BIOL 3211

Topic 1: Animal History; Problems Animals Face

comparative physiology the various solutions different animals have devised to the problems they face
Which animals show up first in evolution? the simplest ones (the majority of the time
eons longest division of geological time
2 examples of eons Precambrian & Phanerozoic
Which eon consisted of 3 eras? Phanerozoic eon
Each era consists of how many periods? 2 or more
Very little fossil records in which eon? Precambrian eon
When were the earliest known fossil records from? Start from the Phanerozoic Eon
Years since era began X 10-6: 4,600 Precambrian Eon
Years since era began X 10-6: 540 Phanerozoic Eon: Paleozoic era
Years since era began X 10-6: 230 (1/4 a billion yrs ago) Mesozoic era
Years since era began X 10-6: 65 Cenozoic era
3 eras of Phanerozoic Eon Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
Paleozoic Era evolution of insects and reptiles (a lot of phylo developed)
Mesozoic Era appearance of mammals, ruled by dinosaurs RAWR
Cenozoic evolution of mammals, dinosaurs gone, appearance of HUMANS (largely nocturnal)
Cambrian period importance first fossils were formed (1/2 billion years ago)
Most of the establishment of present phyla and early vertebrates took place in the ____ period of the _______ era. first; Paleozoic
In the ____ period, _____ happened so suddenly during this brief time that the preceding eons are referred to as "____". Cambrian; evolution; Precambrian
___ levels in the atmosphere reached ___%, developing a ____ layer good enough for phylo to survive in this period? O2; 1; ozone
A number of living things appeared and disappeared during this period that is often referred to as "experimentation" Cambrian period
Usually, when a living thing survived thru this period, they are more likely to be something that survives in the present day. Cambrian period
In the Cambrian period, ____ genes showed up and ____ of beings happened. developmental; variation
The earliest primates appeared less than ____ yra. 10^8
First humans appeared about ____ yra. 10^6
Earliest recorded human history 10^4
The most famous and best studied mass extinction is the one that occurred at the ___ boundary ___ million years ago. Marks the extinction of a large number of ___, mostly marine. Best known for the ____ extinction. K-T; 65; invertebrates; dinosaurs
Permian extinction caused by? volcanic activity
2 dominant species during the Mesozoic period? Terrestrial: dinosaurs Aquatic: marine reptiles
95% of the species died off during the ___ period. Paleozoic; rapid return of species (insects)
Dinosaurs died out during the ____ Extinction Cretaceous
Louis Alvarez Discovered an unusually large concentration of iridium in the sediment layer on the surface of the earth 65 million yra. Believed to have been produced by an asteroid
Potential site of the asteroid impact? Yucatan Peninsula
Species most basic unit of classification; alike enough to interbreed
Categories for grouping animals species, genus, family, order, class, phylum
2 organisms in the same phylum are considered to have ___ basic body plans Same
Protozoa came first; simplest; single cell
Cnidaria radial symmetry; ex. jellyfish, corals very simply organized no large metabolic needs; waste goes out the same way food came in
bilateral symmetry we have this
Platyhelminthes no put thru system; flat worms
Nemerteans ribbon worms; probossis worms
Nematodes round worms; complete enough to be a real animal
Molluscs to anthropods are....? the most developed
Acoeleomates least developed organ system; guts and internal organs in well defined cavities but not developed, just fumbles around
Pseudocoelom has body cavity but not really developed
Protosomes mouth developed at the blastocoel; early embryonic stages are determinate (pre-programmed, so split will have identical but it is still one; clevage is spiral (less than 90 degree angle)
Deuterosomes mouth developes at the opposite end of the blastocoel; ealy embryonic stages are indeterminate; cleavage is radial (cells at right angles during division)
Life arose in an ocean-like environment because....? 1) salt & water balance is easy 2) water is bouyant, helps movement 3) no temperature extremes 4) radiation protection 5) light is fine for photosynthesis up to 650ft
Fresh water vs. salt water Fresh water is more difficult environment because of salt & water balance
Fresh water v.s. terrestrial environment Land is more difficult because of: support and movement water evaporation
homeostasis constant internal conditions a lot of metabolic energy used to maintain it have rhythmic variations that improve the idea of it
water balance problems osmosis, salt concentrations, waste products
interstitial fluids fluids bathing the individual cells
The values of many features are ____, but ____ rhythmically not constant; change
water balance regulation of the solute concentrations of the various fluids of the body
osmosis total concentration of the solutes
ion balances concentration of each of the various salts
Osmosis and ion balance are ____ related and often regulated by ____ organs. closely; same
Excretion removal of soluble wastes (urine)
2 major classes of proteins used for movement 1) cilia and flagella use microtubles 2)muscles use microfillaments
Read over topic 1 page 8-9
Created by: starryeyes213