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Reporting Category 2

Essential terms for STAAR-EOC Biology

chromosomes tightly-wound DNA strands
trait Specific genetically determined characteristic for an individual
transcription the process of copying genetic information from DNA to mRNA; (DNA codes for RNA) in the nucleus
translation the process for which RNA codes for Polypeptides (proteins) in the cytoplasm at a ribosome
codon series of 3 nitrogen bases on mRNA or DNA that code for a specific amino acid . Example: UAA
anticodon series of 3 nitrogen bases on tRNA that match up to a specific amino acid
messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic message from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
transfer RNA (tRNA) carries amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis (from floating in the cytoplasm to the ribosome)
gametes sex cells; egg or sperm
crossing over when homologous chromosomes that are bundled together so closely they exchange segments. This creates genetic diversity in organisms
genetics the study of heredity
gene segment of DNA that controls an organism’s traits
hybrid offspring of parents with DIFFERENT traits; heterozygous. Example: Tt
alleles the different possible forms of a gene
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism; which alleles they possess. Example: BB, Bb, or bb
phenotype appearance, or physical characteristics; what you can see; physical trait. Example: BLUE Eyes, BROWN hair. Expressed in words.
heterozygous having different alleles for a trait; hybrid. Example: Rr
homozygous having the same alleles, purebreed. Example: RR or rr
dihybrid cross a sixteen-box Punnett square that looks at two sets of alleles;
codominance 2 alleles are fully expressed. Example: A Cat with White spots and black spots.
incomplete dominance 2 alleles that share expression; neither is completely dominant. Example: A black cat and a white cat have a grey kitten.
sex-linked inheritance determined by a gene located on the sex chromosome(the X or Y chromosome)
karyotype organized picture of the chromosomes of an individual; used to determine chromosomal annomalies and gender
autosomal chromosomes all chromosomes except the sex chromosomes
trisomy chromosomes do not seperate equally resulting in an extra homologous chromosome; (3 of chromosome #23)
monosomy chromosomes do not seperate equally resulting in a missing homologous chromosome; (only 1 chromosome #23)
non-disjunction chromosomes are not properly sorted during meiosis leading to incorrect numbers of chromosomes in each gamete