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Step 1 9.9.12

Glycolysis, TCA, HMP Shunt

What is the net reaction of glycolyisis? Glucose + 2Pi+2ADP+2NAD+----->2pyruvate+2ATP+2NADH+2H+ +2H2O
where does glycolysis take place? cytoplasm
What 2 steps of glycolysis require ATP? Glucose---->G6P, F6P----> F 16BP
what 3 steps of glycolyisi make ATP? 1,3 BPG---->3 PG, phosphophenolpyruvate---->pyruvate, pyruvate---->acetyl CoA
How is F2,6BP and PFK2 regulated in a fasting state? incr glucagon, increase CAMP, incr protein kinase A,= incr FBPase 2, decr PFK2 less glycolyis
How is F2,6Bp and PFK2 regulated in a fed state? incr inuslin, decr cAMP, decr protein kinase A= decr FBPase 2 incr PFK 2, more glycolysis
What 5 cofactors are required by pyruvate dehydrogenase? 1.pyrophosphate (B1, TPP_ 2. FAD (B2) 3. NAD(B3) 4. CoA(B5) 5. lipoic acid
What is the mechanism of action of arsenic and findings? inhbits lipoic acid (required by pyruvate dehydrogenase). sx: vomiting, rice water stool, garlic breath
What is the mechanism of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency? causes backup of pyruvate and alanine, lactic acidosis. congenital or acquired ( alcoholics or B1 deficiency).
What are the findings in pyruvate dehydrogenase and tx? neuro defects. tx: ketogenic nutrients: incr leucine and lysine which are the only ketogenic AA
What are the products of the TCA cycle? 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2, 1 GTP/acetyl CoA= 12 ATP/acetyl CoA, 24/glucose
Where does TCA occur? mitochondria
What cofactors are required by the alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex? B1,B2,B3,B5,lipoic acid
What is the mnemonic for the TCA? Citrate Is Krebs Starting Substrate For Making Oxaloacetate (citrate,isocitrate, alphaketoglutarate, succiny CoaA, succinate, fumarate, malate, oxaloacetate)
How do NADH electrons enter the mitochondria? via malate aspartate or glycerol 3 phosphate shuttles
How do FADH2 electron get in to the mitochondria? transferred to complex H
what ATP is produced per NADH and FADH2? 3/NADH 2/FADH2
What is the mechanism or rotenone, cyanide, antimycin a, CO? inhbit electron transport, decrease proton gradient so ATPsynthesis doesnt work
What is the mech of oligomycin?> inhbit ATP synthase causing increased proton gradient. No ATP b/c electron transport stops
What is the mech f 2,4 DNP, aspirin, thermogenin increase premeabilty of mito membrane decreases proton gradient increase O2 consumption. synth stop but transport coninues causing fever
What does pyruvate decraboxylase catalyze, what does it require, and where is it found? pyruvate---->oxaloacetate. requires biotin, ATP. activated by Acetyl CoA. in mitochondria
What does PEP carboxykinase catalyze, what does it require and where is it found? oxaloacetate--->phosphoenolpyruvate. requires GTP. in cytosol
What does Fructose 16Bisphosphatase catalyze and where is it foudn? F16BP---->F6P in cytosol
What does glucose 6 phosphatase catalyze and where is it found? G6P--->glucose. in ER
Whjat are the 4 irreversible enzymes of gluconeogenesis? Pathway Prduces Fresh Glucose. Pyruvate carboxylase, PEP carboxykinaze, Frusctose 1,6 bisphosphatase, G6phosphatase
Why can't muscle partcipate in gluconeogenesis? lacks glucose 6 phosphatase
What type of FA are able to enter TCA and undergoe gluconeogenesis? only odd chains, even chains can't since they yield only acetyl coA equivalents
What is the use of the HMP shunt? provides NADPH source, makes ribose for nucleotide synth, needed in RBCs for NADPH. No ATP used or produced
Where does the HMP shunt occur? lactating mamary glands, liver, adrenal cortex, RBCs
What are the 2 reactions of the HMP shunt? G6P---->Co2 +NADPH via G6PDH, ribulose----->Ribose 6 P, G3P, F6P via transketolases
What is the respiratory burst used for? involes activation of membrane bound NADPH to make ROIs. NADPH important for both activation and neutralization
What is the mechanism of chronic granulatomous disease and to what are pt bulnerable? increased risk of catalase postive infection b/c of neutralization of their own H2)2 so WBCs lack ROIs to fight infection
Created by: tjs2123



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