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Speech Anat

Chapter 2

Boyle's Law When gas is kept as a constant temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional and have a constant product.
What type of pressure is associated with Boyle's law? Atmospheric pressure, intrapulmunoic pressure & intrathoracic pressure
Respiratory tract icludes trachea, pharynx, larynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity and organs of respiration (lungs)
External respiration gas exchange between luns and blood
Internal respiration gas exchange between blood and cells.
Organs of articulation & resonance oral, nasal & pharangeal cavities
Trachea connects larynx with bronchi
What is the trachea composed of? 16-20 horseshoe shaped cartilage rings its shape can be altered by the tracheal muscle inferior end connects to the bronchi
Bronchi tubes that extend from the trachea to the lungs
parts of the bronchi main stem bronchi, secondary bronchi & tertiary bronchi
Right bronchus bigger 3 secondary bronchi 10 tertiary bronchi
Left bronchus 2 secondary bronchi 8 tertiary bronch1
Division of tertiary bronchi bronchioles->terminal bronchioles->alveolar ducts->air sacs
alveolar ducts and air sacs covered in tiny pits
Alveoli pits found in walls of terminal bronchioles -covered with capillaries which exchange oxygen with carbon dioxide -at this level become less cartilaganous and more muscular
Pleurae sac like structure that encases each lung
Parietal pleura lined each pleurae
Visceral pleura 2nd layer and is contionous with the parietal pleura
How many lobes does the right lung have? 3 lobes- superior, middle & inferior
Negative pressure the vaccum cause by the parietal and visceral pleura
Respiration breathing for air
Primary function of breathing oxygenation of blood
Secondary function of breathing air from lungs used as a power source for speech (speech breathing)
2 subprocesses during breathing inhalation or inspiration
Inhalation active process in which muscles are involved
Exhalation passive process, muscles relax
3 passive processes in Exhalation gravity, unbending of bones/cartilages and elasticity of lung tissue
Exhalation (speech breathing) active process because we have to control the passive process when speaking
During the process of inhalation enlarge the thoracic cavity
Superior border of the thoracic cavity shoulder or pectoral girdle
Inferior border of the thoracic cavity Diaphragm which separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
Shoulder (pectoral) girdle made up of shoulder and scapula
Anterior border of thoracic cavity sternum
Posterior border of the thoracic cavity vertebral column
Lateral border of thoracic cavity ribs and costal cartilages
Adult vertebral column 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, a sacrum, 1 coccyx
Adolescent vertebral column 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccyx
Vertebral foramen an arch that encloses a space for the spinal cord
Spinous process prominent projection, directed dorsally and more inferiorly from the neural arch
Transverse process projects laterally from the vertebrae.
Articular facets located on thoracic vertebrae provide attachments for ribs
Ribs 1-7 true ribs directly attach to sternum by costal cartilages
Ribs 8-10 false ribs that attach directly to one long costal cartilage
Ribs 11-12 floating ribs, has no anterior attachments
Ribs attach posteriorly by cosco cental ligament and cosco transverse ligaments
At respiratory rest intrapulmonic pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. At the same time intrathoracic pressure is less than both.
thoracic muscles used in inhalation diaphram, external intercostal, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus posterior superior, subclavius & levator costalis
neck muscles used in inhalation sternocleoidomastoid, scalenus anterior, scalenus medial, scalenus posterior
back muscles used in inhalation sacrospinalis & latissmus dorsi
thoracic muscles used in exhalation internal intercostal muscles, serratas posterior inferior, transverse thoracic muscles, subcostals
back muscles used in exhalation iliocostalis dorsi, iliocostalis lumborum, quadratus lumborum
abdominal muscles involved in exhalation rectus abdominus, transverse abdominus, external obliques, internal obliques
Origin fixed point of attachment
Insertion moveable point of attachment
Course direction of fibers
Innervation nerve supply
Function the physiological accomplishments
Diaphragm single muscle that separates thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
Origin of the diaphragm posterior surface of the xiphoid process, inner surface of the upper lumbar vertebrate ans well as the inner surface of ribs 7-12
Insertion of the diaphragm central tendon
Innervation of the diaphragm phrenic nerve
Function of the diaphragm to enlarge the thoracic cavity in its vertical dimension during unforced inhalation
External intercostal muscles 11 pairs located in between ribs
Origin of the external intercostal muscle inferior surface of rib
Insertion of external intercostal muscle superior surface of the rib
Course of the external intercostal muscle downward and medially toward the sternum. Downward and laterally away from the vertebral column
Innervation of the external intercostal muscles intercostal nerves
Function of the external intercostal muscles raise the ribs and increase their size of the thoracic cavity during unforced inhalation
Origin of internal intercostal muscles inferior surface of the rib above
Insertion of internal intercostal muscle medical surface of the rib immediately below
Course of internal intercostal muscles downward and laterally away from the sternum. Downward and medially toward the vertebral column
Innervation of the internal intercostal muscles intercostal nerves
Function of internal intercostal muscles help lower the ribs during unforced exhalation
Origin of levator costalis 7th cervical & upper 11 thoracic vertebrate on the transverse process
Insertion of the levator costalis lateral surface of the rib immediately below, course downward and laterally
Innervation of the levator costalis intercostal nerves
Function of the levator costalis help raise the shoulder girdle and enlarge the thoracic cavity during forced inhalation
Origin of sternocleoidomastoid anterior and the superior surface of the manubrium, they insert into the clavicle and scapula by means of a tendon
Insertion of sternocleoidomastoid course upward and posteriorally. Also attach to the mastoid process of the temporal bone.
Innervation of the sternocleoidomastoid accessory nerve
Functions of the sternocleoidomastoid rotation of the head and raise the sternum during forced inhalation
Scalene muscle made up of? scalenus anterior, medial and posterior
Origin of scalene muscle c2 to c6
Insertion of scalene muscle ribs 1 & 2 at the tubercle, they course downward
Innervation of scalene muscles cervival nerves 2&3
Function of scalene muscles raise the ribs during force inhalation
Bony pelvis made up of pelvic girdle, sacrum and coccyx
Innominate bone or hip bone comprises of? Ilium, Ischium & pubis
Rectus abdominis largest muscle that provides for points of attachments for muscles of exhalation. Connected by a tendenous linea alba
Origin of rectus abdominis bony pubis
Insertion of rectus abdominis inserts to the outer surface of the xiphoid process, as well as ribs 5,6,7 inclubing their costal cartilages
Innervation of rectus abdominis thoracic nerves 6-12
Function of rectus abdominis flatten the abdomen and the abdominal visceral which forces the diaphragm upward during forced exhalation
What are lung air volumes? discreet volumes of air, only 1 can be measured by a wet spirometer
Tidal air air that we inhale and exhale during quiet breathing. Best lung air volume for speaking. Least amount of muscles are used.
Origin of Transverse abdominis superior surface of the ilium (illiac crest) as well as the inner surface of ribs 6-12
Insertion of transverse abdominis aponeurosis of the rectus abdominis
Course of transverse abdominis upwards and horizontally
Innervation of transverse abdominis thoracic nerves 6-12
Function of transverse abdominis help to compress the abdomen during unforced exhalation
Inspiratory Reserve Volume air that can be inhaled in excess of tidal volume furing forced inhalation
Expiratory reserve air that is exhaled during a maximum exhalation
Residual volume air that remains in our lungs even after a max exhalation
lung air capacities combinations of lung air volumes
Inspiratory reserve capacity made up of inspiratory reserve volume & tidal volume
Vital capacity includes 3: inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume & expiratory reserve volume
Functional residual capacity includes expiratory reserve volume & residual volume
Total lung capacity includes all four lung air volumes: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve & residual volume
Created by: nalinir77