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Crime and Justice in America

mala in se offenses that are wrong by their very nature
mala prohibita offenses prohibited by law but not wrong in themselves
visible crime an offense against persons of property, committed primarily by members of the lower class; aka "street crime" or "ordinary crime"
What offense is the one most upsetting to the public? visible crime
occupational crimes criminal offenses committed thru opportunities created in a legal business or occupation
organized crime a framework for the perpetuation of criminal acts (gambling, drugs & prostitution) providing illegal services that are in great demand
money laundering moving the proceeds of criminal activities thru a maze of businesses, banks, & brokerage accounts so as to disguise their origin
crimes w/o victims offenses involving a willing & private exchange of illegal goods or services that are in strong demand
political crime an act, usually done for ideological purposes, that constitutes a threat against the state
cyber crimes offenses that involve the use of one or more computers
dark figure of crime a metaphor that emphasizes the dangerous dimension of crimes that are never reported to the police
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) an annually published statistical summary of crimes reported to the police, based on voluntary reports to the FBI by local, state, & federal law enforcement agencies
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) a reporting system in which the police describe each offense in a crime incident, together with data describing the offender, victim & property
National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) interviews of samples of the U.S. population conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics to determine the number & types of criminal victimizations & thus the extent of unreported as well as reported crime
victimology a field of criminology that examines the role of the victim plays in precipitating a criminal incident & also examines the impact of crimes on victims
classical criminology a school of criminology that views behavior as stemming from free will, demands responsibility & accountability of all perpetrators, & stresses the need for punishments severe enough to deter others
positivist criminology a school of criminology that views behavior as stemming from social, biological, & psychological factors; argues that punishment should be tailored to the individual needs of the offender
criminogenic having factors thought to bring about criminal behavior in an individual
biological explanations explanations of crime that emphasize physiological & neurological factors that may predispose a person to commit crimes
psychological explanations explanations of crime that emphasize mental processes & behavior
sociological explanations explanations of crime that emphasize as causes of criminal behavior the social conditions that bear on the individual
social structure theories theories that blame crime on the existence of a powerless lower class that lives with poverty & deprivation & often turns to crime in response
anomie a breakdown or disappearance of the rules of social behavior
social process theories theories that see criminality as normal behavior; everyone has the potential to become a criminal, depending on the influences that impel one toward or away from crime & how one is regarded by others
learning theories theories that see criminal behavior as learned, just as legal behavior is learned
theory of differential association people become criminals because they encounter more influences that view criminal behavior as normal & acceptable than influences that are hostile to criminal behavior
control theories theories holding that criminal behavior occurs when the bonds that tie an individual to society are broken or weakened
labeling theories theories emphasizing that the causes of criminal behavior are not found in the individual but in the social process that labels certain acts as deviant or criminal
critical criminology theories that assume criminal law & the criminal justice system are primarily a means of the controlling the lower classes, women, & minorities
social conflict theories theories that view crime as the result of conflict in society, such as conflict between economic classes caused by elites using law as a means to maintain power
feminist theories theories that criticize existing theories for ignoring or undervaluing women's experiences as offenders, victims, & peoples subjected to decision making by criminal justice officials
life course theories theories that identify factors affecting the start, duration, nature & end of criminal behavior over the life of an offender
integrated theories theories that combine differing theoretical perspectives into a larger model
Created by: sillysisyphus