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Fundamentals Week9

Oxygenation, First Aid and Emergency Nursing

Hypoxemia Lack of O2 in the blood
Hypoxia Inadequate O2 at the cellular level
Arterial Blood Gases Assesses the function of the lungs by measuring pH, PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3 and SaO2
pH Measures the acidity or basicity of a solution, such as the blood
HCO3 Bicarbonate (Increases BASICITY) Amount is controlled by the KIDNEYS
CO2 Carbon Dioxide (Increases ACIDITY) Amount is controlled by the LUNGS
O2 Oxygen
Alkaline Same as base, opposite of an acid
Normal pH 7.35-7.45
Acidosis pH less than 7.35
Alkalosis pH greater than 7.45
Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis Caused by a lung problem
Metabolic Acidosis/Alkalosis Caused by renal failure or other metabolic problems (DKA)
Interpreting Blood Gases FIRST- Look at the pH- Is it acidic or alkaline (who's your daddy) THEN- Look at CO2 and HCO3. If CO2 is abnormal it is RESPIRATORY, IF HCO3 abnormal it is METABOLIC
Normal Value for CO2 35-45mm Hg
Normal Value for HCO3 22-26 mEq
Room Air 21% Oxygen
Non Rebreather Delivers Pure O2 by inhibiting the re-breathing of exhaled air
Venturi Mask O2 + Room Air at specific doses. (Known as FiO2)
CPAP Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Pneumothorax Air in pleural space
Hemothorax Blood in pleural space
Hyperbaric Oxygen 100% FiO2 at THREE times the atomospheric pressure. Increases PaO2 from 80-100 to over 2,000 mmHg
Hyperbaric Oxygen Indications Improves wound healing for diabetic/vascular insufficiency Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Decompression sickness, Anaerobic Burn infections
BiPAP Bilevel positive airway pressure
PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure
Ventilation Moving gases in and out of the lungs; the act of breathing
Respiration the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in the lungs
Brain Death Irreversible form of unconciousness characterized by a complete loss of brain function while the heart continues to beat. Legal definition varies from state to state.
Epistaxis Nosebleed; Hemmorrahge from the nose.
Avulsion Torn away tissue, teeth
Heat Exhaustion Loss of water/lytes due to prolonged exertion in hot environment
Heat Stroke Environment too hot/humid for the body to cool itself. Brain damage/death more likely.
Frostbite Freezing of tissues
Orthopedic injuries Always check ABCs first, Splint in place, Ensure blood flow, RICE Therapy
RICE Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
Shallow Partial Thickness burn Superficial
Deep Partial Thickness burn Blistering
Full Thickness burn Completely through skin and underlying tissue
Chemical Agents (Terrorism) Pulmonary- affect the lungs, can cause death Incapacitating- Impair rather than kill Cyanide- Rapidly dealy in high concentrations nerve agents- Rapidly deadly, Vesicants-destroy skin/tissues
Chain of survival Early recognition and access to EMS, Early CPR, Early Defib, Early ALS
Confirming Death Unreceptiveness to even intense painful stimuli No movement/spontaneous resp. x 8 minutes,PaCo2>/= 60 after 100% Fio2
Confirming Death (2) Complete absence of deep tendon reflexes, Flat EEG x 10 minutes, No changes after 2nd assessment
Created by: 100000914581547